PHT 432)) Industrial Pharmacy Dr. Fars Alanazi AA91
PHT 432)) Industrial Pharmacy Dr. Fars Alanazi AA91 2-3 Lectures
Size Reduction Outline of the lecture: Size Reduction Definition
Theory of size reduction Mechanism of size reduction Size reduction equipment 1. Hammer mill, (vertical, horizontal) 2. Cutting mill 3. End and edge runner mill 4. Fluidized energy mill 5. Ball mill and types 6. Oscillating granulator 7. Colloid mill
Definition of size reduction: It is the process that reduces large solid unit masses to smaller unit masses by mechanical means. Importance of size Reduction in Pharmacy: (Advantages) ? Importance of size Reduction in Pharmacy: Advantages: 1. Increase surface area which increase the solubility, and
dissolution rate of material so enhance its bioavailability. 2. Improvement of extraction rate. 3. Improvement and increasing the drying rate. 4. Improve mixing of materials together so give less problems in uniformity of weight and contents of tablets. 5. Improve color and/or active ingredient dispersion in tablet excipient diluents. 6. Improve flowability of materials in tablet machine. 7. Control particle size distribution of a dry granulation or dry mix to minimize segregation while handling and tableting .
Disadvantages ? Disadvantages: 1. A possible change in polymorphic form of the active ingredient rendering it less or totally inactive or unstable. 2. Possible degradation of the drug as a result of heat build up during milling by oxidation or adsorption of unwanted moisture due to the increased surface area.
3. A decrease in bulk density may cause problems in the flowability of material. 4. A decrease in particle size may create static charge problems causing the small drug particles to agglomerate therefore effectively decreasing surface area. This may decrease the dissolution rate. Size reduction is a rate process that depends on: 1. The size of the starting material, the feed. 2. Type of size reduction machine 3. The orientation of the material in the crushing
machine. 4. The time of milling to which these materials are subjected The principal means of accomplishing size reduction are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
A flaw in a unit particle is a discontinuity or imperfection in the structure. Compression at any point along the line below the yield value, the material will go back and returns to its original shape and this is called elastic deformation.
However compression above the yield value will result in plastic deformation in which the substance break down and not go back to its original shape after removing stress. Kinds of materials according to the process of size reduction: 1- Brittle 2- Fibrous 3- Hard
General hardness classification of some pharmaceutical : materials Material Hardness Talc Soft
Chalk Soft to brittle Soft Boric acid Soft but Plastic Cellulose Moderately hard to brittle
Aspirin Moderately hard to brittle Lactose Moderately hard to brittle NH4CI
Moderately hard to brittle Sucrose Hard to brittle Dextrin Hard Sorbitol
Hard Kaolin Hard Magnesium oxide Abrasive Hard
Calactate Abrasive Very hard Amobarbital Abrasive Mechanical Engineering Rittinger's law :This law states that the energy required for the crushing process is proportional to the surface sheared, (for fine
grinding) Kick's law: The law states that energy required for crushing materials is proportional to the logarithm of the ratio between the initial (r 1) and final diameters (r2) of the particles . Log (r1/r2) Energy may be consumed in so many aspects in the size reduction process as: 1. Producing elastic deformation of particles before the occurrence of fractures, which is a waste energy.
2. Producing inelastic deformations which lead to size reduction and this is the wanted energy 3. Causing elastic distortion consequently failure of the equipment 4. Friction between the particles and the machine 5. Noise, heat and vibration in the plant. There are factors associated with the nature of the material
reduction as: a. Friability b. Structure which may be granular, Fibrous c. Hardness d. Stickiness e. Soapiness f. Moisture content Grinding can be wet or dry when wet low speed mills are used Advantages of wet grinding (1) The power consumption is less by 20 - 30%.
(2) The capacity of the plant is increased. (3) Removal of the product is facilitated and the amount of fines is reduced. (4) Dust formation is eliminated (5) The solids are more easily handled Selection of size Reduction Equipment depends upon: A.Kind of material.
B.Initial size of material. C.Final product particle size whether we need fine or large particles. D.Range of abrasion: some materials are abrasive so we use machine hard enough which withstand this abrasion effect. Hardness of materials are arranged in order of increasing hardness in the Mohr scale: 1- Talk 4- Fluorspar 7- Quartz 2- Rock salt & gypsum 5- Apotite 8- Topaz 3-Calcite
6- Felspar 10- Diamond 9- Carborundum E. Moisture content of material whether it is hydrous or anhydrous. F. Particle size distribution and shape. G. Structure, strength, friability, stickiness Classification of size Reduction equipment: The oldest size reduction equipment is Busherstone. They are classified according to the products they intended to produce as follows:
Classification of size Reduction equipment 1. Coarse crushers: have no applications in pharmacy as blake jaw crusher, Dodge crusher, Gyratery crusher and Rotary coal breaker 2. Intermediate crushers : Hammer mills
Cutting mills Edge and end runner mills. 3. Fine crushers: - Ball mill - Fluid energy mill. - Oscillating granulator. 4.
Colloidal mills. Classification of size Reduction equipment All milling or Comminution equipment Consist of three main or basic parts: 1. Feeding part. 2. Milling chamber. 3. Receiver. Some mills are also fitted with
cyclones for classifying the partcles by size. Outline of the lecture:
Size Reduction Definition Theory and mechanisms of size reduction Mechanism of size reduction Size reduction equipment 1. Hammer mill, (vertical, horizontal) 2. Cutting mill 3. End and edge runner mill
4. Fluidized energy mill 5. Ball mill and types 6. Oscillating granulator 7. Colloid mill 1. Hammer mill, (vertical, horizontal) 2. Cutting mill 3. End and edge runner mill 4. Fluidized energy mill 5. Ball mill and types 6. Oscillating granulator
7. Colloid mill Intermediate Crushing Fine Crushing For Liquids Intermediate Crushing 1- Hammer Mill
Hammer Mill: A, rotating disc; B, shaft; c, hammers; D, breaker plates; E, screen There are 2 types of Hammer mill 1. Horizontal - shaft type. 2. Vertical - shaft type. Types of screen bars for hammer mills
Advantages of Hammer mill: 1. Easy to set up or build 2. Easy to clean. 3. Small space requirement. 4. It has a wide range of the size of feed start. Disadvantages: 5. Possibility of clogging of screen 6. Heat build up during milling and cause degradation of product so not used for heat labile substances. 7. Mill and screen wear with abrasive materials
2-Cutting Mill: It is similar to Hammer mill but here, the hammer like knives or blades Processes: Cutting and shearing. It is used for fibrous materials, wet and dry materials and for dispersion of powder. (e.g. liquorices root). It is not used for hard, abrasive materials 3- Edge and End runner mills: The only advantage is using scraper which can be put on the edge. The feed is from the top or from side. Processes: shearing and attrition Fine Crushers
1- Fluid Energy Mill It is rapid and very efficient method of reducing powders to 30 mm and less with relatively narrow particle size distribution. . Attrition and impaction : Processes A high-velocity air stream introduces the powder to : Principle of operation the milling chamber by a venturi tube (a high velocity air stream passing an opening containing the powder produces a vacuum in the opening and draws
the powder into the air stream) Milling takes place immediately because of the high - velocity collisions between particles suspended within the air steam. Grinding nozzles (usually 2-6 depending on the size of the mill) may be laced tangential or opposed to the initial powder flow path to increase the particle velocity resulting in higher impact energy.
The air from the grinding nozzles transports the powder to a classifier which removes the smaller particles. Schematic of fluid energy mill and particle collection system The particle size depends on: 1. The configuration of the mill 2. Feed size 3. Position of the nozzles. 4. Design of the classifier.
5. Feed rate. If the feed rate is high larger particle size could be obtained If the feed rate is slow smaller particle size could be obtained 1. Heat -labile sbubstances can be milled with little danger : Advantages of thermal degradation. This is because of the cooling effect of the air and rapid heat exchange between particles and air. 2. It produces very small and uniform distributed particles. 3. Inert gases can be used instead of air to minimize or
eliminate the oxidation of susceptible compounds which may occur with compressed air. Ultra-fine grinding Materials: Moderately hard 20 - 200 mesh gives 30-5 mm or less. Materials not recommended for mill soft, tacky, fibrous :Uses Ball Mill Types: 1. Batch 2. Continuous
3. Continuous closed circuit milling Ball Mill A. Batch: It is a cylindrical shell filled to about 1/2 its volume with grinding media with different sizes.
The shell rotates on its central axis by means of motor- driven rol lers on which it rests. B- Continuous: It is a conical shell with grinding media of different sizes.
Feed enters from the hollow end of the mill and milled material exits through a grating or small ports of the opposite end. Harding Mill Conical mill chamber Grating
Feedstock in Milled product out Grinding media Another classification of ball mills: 1- Simple ball mill 2- Pebble mill
4- Compound ball mill 5- Hardinage mill Feed end Discharge end 3-Tube mill 6- Rod mill
Hardinage mill C. Continuous closed -circuit milling: It is arranged using the continuous mill with a gas or liquid classifying system. Air and feed enters through the opening at end of the mill.
The large feedstack drops into the milling zone and the smaller particles become entrained in the air stream flowing through the mill and exiting through the opposite end to a particle classifier. The classifier removes the smallest particles while the
larger particles are recycled to the mill inlet for further size reduction. At and above the critical speed, the mill is said to be centrifuging and grinding of material not occur. Therefore, milling must be carried out below the critical
speed of the mill at some optimum speed where the balls are carried to the highest point in the chamber without centrifuging. This speed is dependent on: 1. Chamber size 2. Grinding - media size (i.e. Ball size) 3. Shape, density and size distribution of material. 4. Amount of material used in the mill. Factors influencing the size of the product in the ball mill: (1) The rate of feed
(2) Weight of balls (3) The diameter of the balls (5) Discharge freedom (4) The slope of the mill (6) The speed. Advantage of the ball mill: It is used for milling highly abrasive materials.
Disadvantages: 1. Difficult to clean 2. Long milling time (i.e. time consuming) 3.
High energy requirements and high cost. 1. Hammer mill, (vertical, horizontal) 2. Cutting mill 3. End and edge runner mill 4. Fluidized energy mill 5. Ball mill and types 6. Oscillating granulator 7. Colloid mill Intermediate
Crushing Fine Crushing For Liquids 3- Oscillating Granulator Feed size = 2.0 mm Product size: 0.3 mm It is used for: the size reduction of wet and dry granulations. Processes: Shearing (with some attrition)
Principle of operation: It consists of an oscillating bar contacting a woven wire screen. Feed enters through a hopper above the oscillator and screen and is forced through the screen by the oscillating motion of the bar. Collection of the product may be directly onto trays in the case of wet granulations or into drums via a sleeve from a specially fitted
collector funnel that minimizes dust during the processing of a dry granulation to collector (dry) trays (wet). The oscillator speed is constant while the screens can be interchangeable and can produce particle with the desired size Advantages of the oscillating granulator: 1. Narrow size range. 2. Minimum amount of fines obtained during size reduction of a dry granulation. 3. Very uniform wet granulation size which promotes uniform drying. Disadvantages:
4. Low rate of production 5. Wear on the screens. 6. The possibility of product contamination by metal particles chipped/ away form the screen by the oscillator. 1. Hammer mill, (vertical, horizontal) 2. Cutting mill 3. End and edge runner mill 4. Fluidized energy mill 5. Ball mill and types 6. Oscillating granulator
7. Colloid mill Intermediate Crushing Fine Crushing For Liquids Colloid mills
Size Reduction Definition Theory and mechanisms of size reduction Mechanism of size reduction Size reduction equipment Hammer mill, (vertical, horizontal) Cutting mill
End and edge runner mill Fluidized energy mill Ball mill and types Oscillating granulator Colloid mill
The Instruments of the Orchestra 4 Families of Instruments Strings Winds Brass Percussion The String Family Violin Viola Cello Bass Strings can be played Plucked Bowed What do wind instruments have in common? They use a reed The Brass Family...
HELLP Syndrome Dr. Khosrou Naghibi HELLP Syndrome may it be a separate entity? HELLP, a syndrome characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels and a low platelet count, is an obstetric complication that is frequently misdiagnosed at initial presentation.
Nacelink Network in SCOTLink. National job sites. Industry-specific sites. Company-specific sites. Association sites. International sites. Government sites. Nacelink Network - nationwide, high profile companies are members of NACE, Natl Association of Colleges and Employers.
temperate. phage . are able to display lysogeny. Lysis. Enveloped RNA Virus. An example of an animal virus. Acquisition of plasma membrane as envelope. Budding. HIV Life Cycle. HIV Life Cycle. Budding. Bacteria Sex. Viruses move genetic material from cell...
Purpose of personal protective equipment (PPE) PPE requirements. Basics of selecting PPE. 1910.132- General Requirements ... which necessitate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) If hazards are present the employer shall: (i)Select, and have each affected employee use, the...
The Five Elements of Fiction ... Plot Plot is the series of events in a story and can be broken down into five parts: -Expostion - Rising Action - Climax - Falling Action - Resolution Plot is always centered around...