Chapter 5 Ions Remember: an element has a certain number of protons, and that never changes But an element can have different numbers of neutrons and electrons. We call elements with unusual numbers of electrons ions Example: Helium Ions In its natural state, Helium has 2 Protons, 2 Neutrons, and 2 Electrons Atomic Charge
Protons (2) Neutrons (2) Electrons (2) = +2 = 0 = -2 ----TOTAL CHARGE = 0 Example: Helium Ions If Helium loses an electron, it still has 2 Protons and 2 Neutrons, but now only 1 Electron Atomic Charge Protons (2) = +2
Neutrons (2) = 0 Electrons (1) = -1 ----TOTAL CHARGE +1 This is now a POSITIVE ION, also called a Example: Helium Ions If Helium gains an electron, it still has 2 Protons and 2 Neutrons, but now has 3 electrons Atomic Charge Protons (2)
Neutrons (2) Electrons (3) = +2 = 0 = -3 ----TOTAL CHARGE = - 1 This is now a NEGATIVE ION, also called an Writing Elements as Ions Helium with a charge of 1 He Cation or Anion? -
Example: Helium Ions Helium with a charge of +1 He Cation or Anion? + Example: Helium Ions Helium with a charge of +2 He +2
He+2 (Helium without electrons) is also called an Alpha Now you try Carbon gains an electron and becomes an ion Atomic Charge # of Protons _____ # of Neutrons _____ # of Electrons _____ Total Proton Charge _____ Total Neutron Charge _____ Total Electron Charge _____ TOTAL CHARGE = ______
Check one: ___ Cation (C+) ___ Anion (C-) ___ Not an Ion (C) Whats its symbol? Now you try Scandium loses an electron and becomes an ion Atomic Charge # of Protons _____ # of Neutrons _____ # of Electrons _____ Total Proton Charge
_____ Total Neutron Charge _____ Total Electron Charge _____ TOTAL CHARGE = ______ Check one: ___ Cation (Sc+) ___ Anion (Sc-) ___ Not an Ion (Sc) Whats its symbol? Being an Isotope and an Ion 5
Li 3 + Whats the atomic charge? How many neutrons in the nucleus? Symbolic Convention for Atoms A i X Z
X = Atomic Symbol A = Mass Number/Isotope (protons + neutrons) Z = Atomic Number (protons) i = Ionization Number (protons electrons)* Find these: 59 +2 Co 27 Atomic Symbol
Mass Number Atomic Number Ionization Number Protons Neutrons Electrons Anion or Cation Find these: 251 Rf 104 -
Atomic Symbol Mass Number Atomic Number Ionization Number Protons Neutrons Electrons Anion or Cation Find these: 13 C 6 Atomic Symbol
Mass Number Atomic Number Ionization Number Protons Neutrons Electrons Anion or Cation 5.3 Compounds Molecule- An electrical neutral group of atoms that act as a unit. Molecular Compound- Composed of more than one molecule. Ex: Water Ionic Compounds- Composed of positive
and negative ions. Electrically neutral Formed from metals & nonmetals Most are crystalline solids at room temperature Chemical Formula: A shorthand way of listing the elemental ingredients of a molecule Although it gives you the composition, it tells you nothing about its structure. Chemical Formula Examples: H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide)
Chemical Formula Examples: C6H12O6 (Dextrose or Corn Sugar) Chemical Formula Examples: Commo n Name Water Chemic al Formula H20 Molecular
Structure Ingredients 1 Part Oxygen 2 Parts Hydrogen Chemical Formula Examples: Commo n Name Chemic al Formula
Molecular Structure Ingredients 1 Sodium Atom Table Salt NaCl for each 1 Chlorine Atom Chemical Formula Examples:
Commo n Name Chemic al Formula Molecular Structure Ingredients 9 Carbon Atoms Aspri C9H8O n 4
8 Hyrdogen Atoms 4 Oxygen Atoms Chemical Formula Examples: Hemoglobi n (part of blood) Chemic al Formula C3032 H4816 O780 N780 S8 Fe4
Common Name Molecular Structure Ingredients Seriously? 3,032 Carbon Atoms 4,815 Hydrogen Atoms 780 Oxygen Atoms 780 Nitrogen
Atoms 8 Sulfur Atoms 4 Iron Atoms Diatomic Molecules Some elements commonly exist as molecules Contain two atoms of the same element H, O, N, F, Cl, Br, I Chemical Formula Examples: NOTE: While chemists usually put atomic symbols in a certain order in a chemical formula, the order doesnt make a difference to what molecule you have. EXAMPLE:
NaHCO3 = CHO3Na (Baking Soda) Because of the No matter how its formed, a particular compound always has the same type and number of elements in it. Soooo A compound with a certain ratio of elements in it is always the same compound no matter how or when its formed. Its like a chocolate cake recipeif you want the cake to be the same every time you make it, you have to use exactly the Complete the table:
Chemic Common al Name Formul a Hydroge n Peroxide H2 O 2 Ingredients ___ Oxygen Atoms ___ Hydrogen Atoms
Bleach 1 Sodium Atom 1 Carbon Atom 1 Iodine Atom 1 Oxygen Atom Rubbing Alcohol 3 Carbon Atoms ___ Hydrogen Atoms 1 Oxygen Atom C_H8O_ Number
Number of of Atoms Element in s in Molecule Molecul e But Some compounds have the same ingredients (molecules), but different ratios of those ingredients. Like brownies and chocolate cake. Law of Multiple Proportions For two compounds that are made up of the same elements in different ratios,
those ratios of atoms will be simple whole numbers. Example: Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) have Carbon and Oxygen in common, in the ratios 1 to 1 (for Carbon) and 1 to 2 (for Oxygen). Law of Multiple Proportions Example Any idea what these are? (HINT: Red is Oxygen, White is Hydrogen) What are their molecular formulas Law of Multiple Proportions Example
Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 Water H2O Hydrogen Ratio = 2:2 Ionic Compounds Chemical formulas written for ionic compounds do not represent a molecule. Ex. NaCl Ions are arranged in an orderly pattern, but there are many more than just 1 Na and 1 Cl atoms.
Scientists use a FORMULA UNIT- the lowest wholenumber ratio of ions. NaCl= 1:1 ratio between sodium and chlorine ions 8.2 Formation and Nature of Ionic Bonds Properties of ionic compounds Crystalline solids with high melting points Brittle Usually metal and nonmetal in compound Highly water soluble
Nonconductor as a solid Conductor when a molten or aqueous (electrolyte) 5.6 Ionic Charges In order to write chemical formulas for ionic compounds, you need to know the types of ions that atoms tend to form. For groups 1, 2, & 13-18 The ionic charges can be easily determined by using the periodic table. Get out your periodic tables (the colored one) YES, were adding MORE! Metals tend to lose electrons and form cations. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons and form anions. Groups 14 & 18 usually do not forms ions. TRANSITION METALS- Have more than one common
ionic charge Let me introduce you to POLYATOMIC IONS They must be memorized! Charge = +1 Ammonium: Nitrogen Polyatomics NH4+ Charge = -1 Charge = -2
Metal Polyatomics - Dichromate: Cr2O7 MnO4 2 Hydroxide: OH- Other Polyatomics
Chlorate: ClO3Electron Shortage Sulfate: SO -2 4 Electron Abundance Phosphate: PO4-3 WHAT ARE THEY??? Polyatomic Ions are tightly bound groups of atoms that behave as a unit and carry a
charge. Names & table on page 123 in your books! 8.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds The formula of an ionic compound is the fewest cations and anions needed to make the total charge zero. 5.9 Writing Formulas- Binary Ionic Compounds Binary compounds- composed of two elements Electrically neutral Positive charges must exactly balance the
negative charges Net ionic charge must be zero Example: Potassium Chloride K+ Charge= +1 Cl- Charge = -1 Overall Charge = 0 Net Formula = KCl 8.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds What is the formula of iron(III) sulfate? iron(III) = Fe3+ sulfate = (SO4)2- Fe
3+ +3 Fe 3+ +3 (SO4)2- (SO4)2- (SO4)22- +6 -6 2=0
Fe2(SO4)3 2- Your turn Calcium Bromide Iron (III) Oxide Aluminum Iodide Wait. Look back at what you just did Does anybody notice any patterns???? INTRODUCING The crisscross method The numerical charge of each ion is crossed over and used
as a subscript for the other ion. The signs of the numbers are dropped. Lets try one. Ca & S One More Na & O 5.11 Ternary Ionic Compounds Contains atoms of three different elements They usually contain a polyatomic ion. So how would you write the formula for a ternary compound?? The procedure is the same as binary ionic compounds. 1. Write down the formula for each ion 2. Balance the charges 3. Use parentheses if you have more than one of a
polyatomic ion Examples: Ca & NO3 Mg & OH Nomenclature Nomenclature A universally accepted system used for assigning names to chemical compounds. IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The folks responsible for nomenclature rules and the periodic table. Naming Ionic Compounds Binary Ionics of Metals That Arent Transition Elements Examples: BaO, NaCl, Mg2F
Step Example (NaCl) 1 Full name of the metal (Cation) Sodium 2 Add the root of the non-metal (Anion) Sodium Chlor 3 Add ide Sodium Chloride
What would these be? BaO Mg2F CaCl2 MgO 8.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds Transition Metal Ions Many transition metals can be stable at several charges. Use roman numerals and parenthesis to distinguish between different ions. Fe2+
iron (II) 2+ Fe3+ iron (III) 3+ Naming Ionic Compounds Binary Ionics of Metals That ARE Transition Elements Examples: Cr2O3, NiS, Cu2O Step Example (Cr2O3) 1 Full name of the metal (Cation)
Chromium 2 Roman numeral for the cation charge Chromium(III) 3 Add the root of the non-metal (Anion) Chromium(III) Ox 4 Add ide Chromium(III) Oxide What would these be?
NiS Ni2S3 TiO2 Naming Ionic Compounds Binary Ionics of Metals and Polyatomic Ions Step Examples: NaNO3, Al2(SO4Example: )3, NH4Cl Pb(CO ) 3 2 1 Full name of the Cation
Lead 2 Roman numeral for the cation charge if there could be more than one charge Lead(IV) 3 Add the name of the polyatomic anion Lead(IV) Carbonate What would these be? NaNO3 Al2(SO4)3
NH4Cl Summary of Naming & Formula Writing 1. In an ionic compound, the net ionic charge is zero 2. An ide ending generally indicates a binary compound. 3. An ite or ate ending usually means there is a polyatomic anion in the formula 4. Prefixes in the name generally indicate that the compound is molecular. They show the number or each atom in the formula. 5. A Roman numeral shows the ionic charge of the cation.
Naming Covalent Compounds Increasingly Metallic Stuff You Need to Know First Most Metallic Elements Increasingly Metallic Naming Covalent Compounds Stuff You Need to Know First Greek Prefixes for Quantity prefix number mono1 di2
tri3 tetra4 penta5 hexa6 hepta7 octa8 nona9 deca10 Naming Covalent Compounds Examples: H2O, N2O3, CO2, N2O4, P4O10 Example (N2O3) Step 1 Greek prefix for the most metalic element (unless its oxygen, then
use the other element first) [You can Diomit mono- here if theres only one of the 1st element] 2 Full name of that element Dinitrogen 3 Greek prefix for the other element Dinitrogen Tri 4 Root of the other element 3 Add ide Dinitrogen Triox Dinitrogen Trioxide
What would these be? H2O CO2 N2O4 P4O10 Molecular Compounds and Acids ide anion Common acids Hydrochloric acid HCl Sulfuric acid
Nitrous acid HNO2 -ite anion would become -ous acid becomes hydro- -ic -ate anion becomes -ic acid 2. Metallic Substances 1 a.
2 Metallic bond- force of attraction between free floating valence electrons and positively charged metal ions. (electron sea)1,2 b. Properties of metals Usually solids Usually high melting point Good conductor of heat and
electricity Malleable, ductile, and shiny Delocalized electrons around the cations 2. Metallic Substances Alloy - mixture of two or more elements (1 must be a metal). Types of alloys c. d. Substitutional atoms of metal are replaced by atoms of similar size
Sterling silver, brass, 10-carat gold Interstitial small atoms put in between metal atoms Carbon steel Bonding Review Ionic Bonding
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