Crucible of Freedom: Civil War, 1861-1865 Chapter 15

Crucible of Freedom: Civil War, 1861-1865 Chapter 15

Crucible of Freedom: Civil War, 1861-1865 Chapter 15 Causes of the Civil War The American Civil War (1861-1865) 1. 2. 3. 4.

Introduction Lincolns Dilemma Opposing Sides and Strategies Early War (1861-2) 1. 2. 5. Civil War Soldiers 1. 2.

6. Draft and Riots Life for Soldiers The War Continues (1863-1865) 1. 2. 7. East and West Emancipation

The East and West The End Conclusion Themes 1. Compare and contrast the North and South 2. Highlight some of the important battles of the Civil

War and life for soldiers Secession From Nov March 1860-61, 7 states left the Union SC led the way, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Georgia and Texas Argued the Constitution was a contract and the North broke

it by not enforcing the Fugitive Slave Laws*** Cry for States Rights complete independence of Southern states from federal government control Lincolns Dilemma The Civil War, 1861-65 Confederate States of America

These 7 states drafted their own Constitution and called themselves the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Constitution resembled the US Constitution but it protected and recognized slavery in new territories Stressed that each state would be sovereign and independent Chose Jefferson Davis to be their President Lincoln said he wouldnt take active measures to force the states back in the Union President Lincoln

7 states had seceded; many thought he wasnt up for the job Lincoln: morally opposed to slavery and did not support its spread but would not interfere where it was legal Affirmed authority over all US territory in states that had seceded from the Union Fort Sumter (Background) Fort Sumter, in SC,

was low on supplies Lincoln informed South Carolinas Governor he was sending food and supplies in an unarmed ship For Sumter (April 12, 1861) Confederates attacked Lincoln requested 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion

4 more states seceded: VA, NC, TN, and AK Ft. Sumpter Responses to Secession Some in VA opposed secession People from western counties in VA chose a new governor and applied for statehood in the Union Debate was also strong in TN

Sides are chosen Lee Sides with Virginia, does not agree with slavery but cannot fight against his home state! Confederate States of America (1861-1865) States


President States rights and Jefferson Davis the protection of slavery Capital Richmond, VA Border States Border states = slave states that

remained loyal to the Union Included: DE, MD, KT, MI, and WV Secession Border states = blue Lincoln and Border States Following confrontation in Baltimore, the area

was occupied Lincoln suspended writ of habeas corpus Confederates could be jailed without charges indefinitely Opposing Sides and Strategies The Civil War, 1861-1865 Mobilizing For War Both sides unprepared


Army: 16,000 men, mainly in West 1/3 join Confederacy No strong president since Polk Lincoln viewed as weak No direct tax structure No draft Many industries

Connected by railroads No tax structure No navy Two gunpowder factories Poorly equipped Unconnected railroads Northern Advantages Population Farm Acreage

23 states 22 million people 90% of industrial capacity 71% of railroad mileage 75% of nations farms 11 states 9 million people

(5.5 million whites) 10% of industrial capacity 29% of RR mileage 25% of nations farms North

South Industrial Production & Transportation Figure 15.2: Comparative Population and Economic Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861 20 Anaconda Plan: Union strategy for victory in

the Civil War 1. Union navy would blockade southern ports to prevent trade 2. Union would take control of the Mississippi River, cutting the CSA into 2 parts 3. Union armies would capture Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia SIG most difficult objective due to the leadership of Robert E. Lee

Confederate commander of the Army of Northern Virginia who opposed secession but felt loyalty to his home state of Virginia Union Strategies Initial Strategy: Blockade of southern ports Capture Mississippi River

Scotts Great Snake Southern Advantages Home Court Advantage Most fighting took place in the south Concrete War Aims

South fought to preserve their way of life North fought to preserve the Union Officers Many of the best officers fought with the confederacy

King Cotton Southern Society (1860) King Cotton Southern cotton was traded to European nations 75% of all raw cotton in GBs factories came from the South Southerners gambled the British would intervene Why did King Cotton fail?

British factories had surpluses of raw cotton Cotton was imported from Egypt and India Emancipation Proclamation = war to free slaves Financing the War 1) Federal government a. 2) raised funds by land sales and tariffs, but need other

sources North and South raise taxes a. b. 3) Issued war bonds a. b. 4)

5% raised in the South 21% raised in the North loans from citizens, repaid by future generations paid back in gold or silver Print paper money a. b. Not backed by gold or silver $150 million in greenbacks i.

public had to have confidence in the money i. ii. 5) Union legal to pay most public & private debt Confederates never make legal; print too much and caused inflation National Bank a.

b. banks can get bank charter to issue national bank notes private banks can issue war bonds Early War, 1861- 62 The Civil War, 1861-1865 Bull Run /Manassas (June 1861) Union forces (led by McDowell) against

Confederates (led by Beauregard) Union forces were initially successful Confederate reinforcements arrived and routed Union troops Bull Run/Manassas (Gods and Generals) Bull Run/Manassas

(Impact) Union troops were determined never again to be humiliated Boosted confidence of Confederate forces Early War (1861-62)

Lincoln replaced McDowell with McClellan who created Army of the Potomac Transformed unorganized troops into disciplined army Remained cautious during fighting in the East George McClellan Shiloh (April 1862)

Union forces were led by Grant Confederates staged a surprise attack Shiloh (April 1862) Confederate forces were successful until Union reinforcements arrived Fighting was very bloody: about 23,000 total casualties

The Drummer Boy of Shiloh John Clem ran away from his Newark, Ohio home in 1860. He was 9 years old. When war broke the following year he attempted to join the Union Army but was rejected. Undeterred, the determined 10-year-old tagged along with the 22nd Michigan Volunteer Infantry until he was finally adopted as its mascot and drummer. He was supplied with a scaled-down uniform and a shortened rifle. Clem distinguished himself at the Battle of Shiloh where an artillery shell destroyed his drum. Newspapers got hold of his story and he soon became known as the "Drummer Boy of Shiloh." Clem gained further renown at the Battle of Chickamauga in September of 1863. In the thickest of the fighting, three bullets passed through his cap without doing him any harm. Separated from his unit, he escaped capture when he shot and killed a Confederate soldier who ordered him to halt. Newspapers now labeled him "The Drummer Boy of Chickamauga." Little Clem's luck ran out a month later when he was captured by Confederate cavalry while he

was serving as a train guard. He was freed in a prisoner exchange a short time later, but not before the Confederates held him up as evidence that the North was so desperate that it would enlist children in its fight. Clem was rewarded with advancement to the rank of Sergeant and assigned to the headquarters of the Army of the Cumberland. Clem left the Army in 1864 and rejoined it in 1871 as a 2nd Lieutenant. He rose in rank to brigadier general becoming Assistant Quartermaster General of the United States Army in 1903. He retired from the Army in 1915 and died at age 85 in 1937. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Battle of Antietam/Sharpsburg (September 1862) Lees troops invaded MD

Supplies were needed Hoped for European recognition of the Confederacy George B. McClellan (U.S.) vs. Robert E. Lee (C.S.) in Maryland Antietam/Sharpsburg (September 1862) Tactically a draw; strategically a

Union victory as the invasion was halted Bloodiest singleday of fighting in the war (24,000 casualties) Antietam/Sharpsburg Antietam = diplomatic victory Lincoln reconsidered his views of the war

and slavery Drafted a proclamation to free slaves, but waited for a Union victory (Impact) The Emancipation Proclamation (Effective January 1, 1863) Freed slaves residing in states in rebellion

against the Union Did not free slaves in states loyal to the Union Emancipation Proclamation (Effective January 1, 1863) Lincoln maintained support of border states, yet it pushed them closer to emancipation Transformed war aims: Union soldiers now fought

to free slaves Review Questions: Where were the first shots of the civil war fired? Fort Sumter What was the Unions war strategy called? Anaconda Plan Where was the first major bloodshed of the war? Bull Run/First Manassas What was the bloodiest single day battle in American

history? Antietam What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? Freed slaves in rebelling states Civil War Soldiers The Civil War, 1861-1865 Enrollment Act (1863) Men 20-45 were eligible for draft

Draftee could hire a Substitute to serve in his place Draftee could also pay $300 to avoid service Rich mans war, poor mans fight Draft Riots: NYC (July 1863) Working class white men rioted and targeted: Well-dressed white men, African Americans, and

supporters of war Several were injured; at least 6 blacks were lynched Confederate Draft (1862) Similar to Norths Enrollment Act Twenty Negro Law: Provided exemption for owners of 20 or more slaves Created resentment amount Southerners

Figure 15.1: Opposing Armies of the Civil War 46 Civil War Soldiers African American soldiers enlisted in army after 1862 Over 180,000 served

Faced discrimination while serving Represented 10% of entire Union army by end of war Discrimination was common paid less than white troops segregated units with white officers 54th Regiment GLORY! 2:14) (show up until

African American Slaves seized opportunity presented by the approach of Union armies to escape from slavery and achieve freedom Women During the Civil War Typically managed homes and families with scarce resources Often faced poverty and

hunger (especially in the South) Assumed new roles in agriculture, nursing and war industries Clara Barton = served as a nurse, later founded the American Red Cross Women in the War The War Continues, 186365 The Civil War, 1861-1865

Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides Mainly due to high casualties in battle, poor living conditions, and disease Camp life lonely, boring, repetitive Lack of sanitation, poor quality food, lack of proper medical care Warfare brutal battles fought with outdated tactics and advanced weapons led to high casualties Many soldiers were killed, even more returned

home wounded or crippled Many soldiers often kept wartime diaries and sent letters home to record the harsh realities of civil war soldier life Civil War Soldiers Camp life was boring, but diseases could be deadly: Food for union troops: beans, salted pork, pickled beef, hard-tack

Food for Confederate troops: Bacon and cornmeal Both: Food and clothing often in short supply Brutality of combat transformed Union and Confederate soldiers Civil War Soldiers Medical care often involved amputations Possibly 30% of amputees died

following surgery Sanitation Commission established Civil War Soldiers POW camps had poor conditions Andersonville, GA held over 30,00 Designed for 10,000 About 14,000 Union POWs died

Elmira, NY held 12,100 Only open 15 months 25% of the Confeds there died of disease Point Lookout in MD was worse than this one POW Camps Cont Civil War Prisons in Confederate Capital of Richmond, VA Libby, Castle Thunder,

Belle Isle (only had tents)and many more! Castle Thunder Courtesy of The Library of Congress April 7, 1865. "Looking up Cary Street Located today in what is known as Tobacco Row War Continues (1863-65) Confederates defeated Union troops at Chancellorsville (start

at 1:30) in May 1863 But, Stonewall Jackson was killed Union forces were unable to capture Vicksburg Gettysburg (July 1863) Lee invaded the North in summer of 1863 Confederate forces

engaged with Union troops (lead by Meade) at Gettysburg, PA Gettysburg A.P. Hill led his troops and met up with Lees troops Both Lee and Hill continued towards the town of Gettysburg and ran into the Union Cavalry led by John Buford Buford had established defensive positions on the hills and ridges

Gettysburg- Day 1 Hills troops approached from the west and fighting began with Bufords troops on July 1, 1863 Reinforcements arrived with 90,000 Yankee troops and 75,000 Confederates on July 2 Union Armies under Gen. George Meade began to fall back because of the furious Rebel assaultConfeds took control of town However, Lee knew he wouldnt be successful unless the Confederate Army forced the Yankees to yield their position on Cemetery Ridge, the high ground south of Gettysburg

Gettysburg Day 2 (July 2) Lee ordered Gen. James Longstreet to attack Cemetery Ridge Longstreet advanced from Seminary Ridge through a peach orchard and wheat field that stood between them and Union troops A Brigade from Alabama attacked the hill at Little Round Top but were defeated by Union troops led by Colonel Joshua L. Chamberlain Union forces lost 1/3 of their brigade and were running out of ammo when Chamberlain ordered them to charge the Confeds

Confederates surrendered Little Round Top History Channel Gettysburg- Day 3 (July 3) Lee ordered an attack on the middle of the Union lines For 2 hours fire rang out and could be heard as far as Pittsburgh Longstreet thinks he has weakened the Union forces and orders men under Gen. Pickett to march across the battlefield and attack the center of the Union line (known as Picketts Charge)

Union reloaded and decimated the Confeds who fled fearing counter-attack Lee sent Cavalry led by Gem. James E.B. (Jeb) Stuart to try and surprise Meade and meet up with Longstreet Stuart stalled however because of battle with Robert Gregg Lee gave up hopes of invading the north and returned to VA Depressed, he resigned but Davis would accept it Gettysburg (overview) 3 day battle left 23,000 Union men and 28,000

Confeds. killed or wounded Bodies everywhere! Lee continued to lead his men for the next 2 years of the war, but the Confederacy was never able to recover from the losses at Gettysburg *****BECAME THE TURNING POINT OF THE WAR!!! ***** Gettysburg (July 1863) Gettysburg = bloodiest engagement of the

war Over 50,000 Union and Confederate deaths The Gettysburg Address Lincoln attended the dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery Gettysburg Address Lincolns 2 minute speech Said that the United States was one

nation, not a federation of independent states After Gettysburg Address = United States is Lincoln identified the reasons for fighting the Civil War To preserve a nation that was dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal To preserve a nation that was dedicated ruled by a government of the people,

by the people, and for the people. Gettysburg Address Vicksburg (May-July 1863) Vicksburg fell to Union troops following a siege Soon after Union forces controlled the Miss. River The tide turned in favor of the Union

Map 15.6: The War in the West, 1863: Vicksburg War Continues (1863-65) Robert E. Lee Mexican war veteran

Commanded Army of NOVA His military achievements were respected by many War Continues (1863-65) Ulysses S. Grant Also a veteran of Mexican War Known as a heavy

drinker and smoked cigars Named Commander of all Union armies in 1864 War Continues (1863-65) The final Virginia Campaign, 1864-65

Atlanta (September 1864) ATL fell to Union troops led by Sherman Helped Lincoln win reelection Prior to election Lincoln was criticized by democratic candidate McClellan and radicals in his own party Sherman Shermans March

(1864-65) Shermans troops cut a path of destruction 60 miles wide Map 15.7: Shermans March Through the South, 18641865 Appomattox

(April 1865) Lee retreated from Petersburg; low on men and supplies Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865 Appomattox (April 1865) Terms of surrender were generous;

confederates could return home (w/ their horses) Within weeks confederate forces had surrendered Death of a President (April, 1865) April 14, 1865, while attending a play, Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth

Lincoln died the next day Results of the Civil War (1861-65) Slavery endedbut how would the government address the status of newly freed slaves? ~ 620,000 Americans died Much of the South was destroyedhow would it be rebuilt? Figure 15.3: Civil War Deaths Compared to U.S. Deaths in Other Wars

77 Review Advantages of N and S on eve of war Outlined key battles of the war Review Questions #2: What was the turning point of the civil war? Gettysburg

Who did Lincoln appoint as General of all the Union armies? Ulysses S. Grant Which Union general led a march of destruction through GA and SC? Sherman

In which speech did Lincoln try to reunite the country with malice towards none, with charity for allto bind up the nations wounds Gettysburg Address Where did Lee surrender to Grant? Appomattox Courthouse

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