Chapter 6 The Internet 6 Chapter Contents Section A: Internet Technology Section B: Fixed Internet Access Section C: Portable and Mobile Internet Section D: Internet Services
Section E: Internet Security Chapter 6: The Internet Access 2 6 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False 060100 NAPs such as Earthlink and Comcast offer dial-up and cable Internet access. 060200 TCP, IP, UDP, HTTP, and FTP are examples
of protocols used on the Internet. 060300 22.214.171.124 is an example of an IP address. 060400 .edu and .ca are examples of top-level domains. 060500 Internet-based servers can handle multiple tasks using different ports. Chapter 6: The Internet 3 6 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False
060600 Utilities such as Ping and Traceroute help you gauge the speed of your Internet connection. 060700 10 Mbps is a narrowband Internet connection. 060800 Dial-up, ISDN, and DSL provide Internet access using telephone cabling. 060900 Cable Internet service is fast because it has lots of latency. 061000 WiMAX uses low-earth orbiting satellites to transport data to the Internet. Chapter 6: The Internet 4
6 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False 061100 Portable Internet access includes Mobile WiMAX and Wi-Fi. 061200 UTMS, EDGE, and HSUPA are examples of broadband ISPs. 061300 VoIP uses circuit switching technology to send analog data. 061400 [email protected] is a popular Wi-Fi service provider for non-business consumers. 061500 Cloud computing uses distributed grid computing to predict weather. Chapter 6: The Internet
5 6 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False 061600 FTP makes it easy to anonymously use a search engine. 061700 BitTorrent is an Internet security protocol. 061800 Consumers should use port probes to encrypt data sent over the Internet. 061900 NATs are used by hackers to intercept packets traveling over the Internet.
Chapter 6: The Internet 6 6 SECTION Internet Technology
A Background Internet Infrastructure Internet Protocols, Addresses, and Domains Connection Speed Chapter 6: The Internet 7 6 Question 062100 One reason the Internet works is because TCP/IP offers a global addressing standard. Which one of the
following is accurate in the context of Internet addresses? A. IPv6 addresses such as 126.96.36.199 are dedicated to educational institutions. B. Top level domains like EarthLink or AOL are adequate for most consumers. C. A domain name, such as amazon.com corresponds to a unique IP address. D. A dynamic IP address begins with www. Chapter 6: The Internet 8 6 Background
The ARPANET, created in 1969, connected computers at UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, University of Utah, and University of California at Santa Barbara Today, the Internet connects computers all over the globe and supplies information to people of all ages and interests With an estimated 500 million nodes and more than 1.5 billion users, the Internet is huge Chapter 6: The Internet
9 6 Internet Infrastructure The Internet is not owned or operated by any single corporation or government The Internet backbone is a network of high-capacity communications links that provides the main routes for data traffic across the Internet Backbone links and routers are maintained by network service providers (NSPs) NSP equipment and links are tied together by network access points (NAPs) An Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that offers
Internet access to individuals, businesses, and smaller ISPs Chapter 6: The Internet 10 6 Internet Infrastructure Chapter 6: The Internet 11 6 Internet Infrastructure To communicate with an ISP, your computer uses some type
of communications device, such as a modem Chapter 6: The Internet 12 6 Internet Protocols, Addresses, and Domains Chapter 6: The Internet 13
6 Internet Protocols, Addresses, and Domains A computer can have a permanently assigned static IP address or a temporarily assigned dynamic IP address Chapter 6: The Internet
14 6 Internet Protocols, Addresses, and Domains Chapter 6: The Internet 15 6 Internet Protocols,
Addresses, and Domains The first step in registering a domain name is to find out whether the name is currently in use or reserved for future use. If a domain name is not available, consider using a different top-level domain, such as biz instead of com. After youve found an available domain name, you can continue the registration process by filling out a simple online form.
Chapter 6: The Internet 16 6 Connection Speed Data travels over the Internet at an incredible speed The elapsed time for data to make a round trip from point A to point B and back to point A is referred to as latency Ping Traceroute Upstream vs. downstream speed Chapter 6: The Internet
17 6 Connection Speed When upstream speeds differ from downstream speeds, you have an asymmetric Internet connection When upstream and downstream speeds are the same, you have a symmetric Internet connection Internet connection options Fixed Internet access Portable Internet access Mobile Internet access Chapter 6: The Internet
18 6 SECTION Fixed Internet Access
B Dial-up Connections DSL, ISDN, and Dedicated Lines Cable Internet Service Satellite Internet Service Fixed Wireless Service Fixed Internet Connection Roundup Chapter 6: The Internet 19
6 Question 062200 Although ISPs offer Internet access though dial-up, satellites, WiMAX, ISDN, and DSL, cable Internet is currently the preferred access method. Why? A. It is the least expensive. B. It is the fastest and most widely available technology. C. It has the highest latency. D. It was the original Internet access technology. Chapter 6: The Internet 20
6 Dial-up Connections A dial-up connection is a fixed Internet connection that uses a voiceband modem and telephone lines to transport data between your computer and your ISP Chapter 6: The Internet 21 6 Dial-up Connections A voiceband modem converts the signals from your computer into signals that can travel over telephone lines Modem speed is measured in bits per second
Chapter 6: The Internet 22 DSL, ISDN, and 6 Dedicated Lines T1, T3, and T4 lines are leased from the telephone company and offer fast, high-capacity data transmission ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a type of fixed Internet connection that moves data at speeds of 64 Kbps or 128 Kbps over ordinary telephone lines
ISDN terminal adapter connects a computer to a telephone wall jack and converts signals to travel over ISDN connection Chapter 6: The Internet 23 DSL, ISDN, and 6 Dedicated Lines DSL is a high-speed, digital, always-on Internet access
technology that runs over standard phone lines Some DSL installations require service technicians DSL modem Chapter 6: The Internet 24 6 Cable Internet Service Cable Internet service distributes always-on, broadband Internet access over the same infrastructure that offers cable television service
Chapter 6: The Internet 25 6 Cable Internet Service Cable modems convert your computers signal into one that can travel over the CATV network Always-on connection DOCSIS-compliant cable modems Chapter 6: The Internet 26
6 Satellite Internet Service Satellite Internet service distributes always-on, high-speed asymmetric Internet access by broadcasting signals to and from a personal satellite dish A satellite modem is a device that modulates data signals from a computer into a frequency band that can be carried to the satellite dish where it is converted to another frequency, amplified, and transmitted Chapter 6: The Internet 27
6 Satellite Internet Service Chapter 6: The Internet 28 6 Fixed Wireless Service Fixed wireless Internet service broadcasts signals in order to offer Internet access to large areas WiMAX A WiMAX system transmits data to and from WiMAX antennas mounted on towers Under ideal conditions, WiMAX
can transmit data at 70 Mbps Chapter 6: The Internet 29 6 Fixed Internet Connection Roundup Chapter 6: The Internet 30
6 SECTION C Portable and Mobile Internet Access Internet to Go
Wi-Fi Hotspots Portable and Mobile WiMAX Portable Satellite Service Cellular Data Service Chapter 6: The Internet 31 6 Question 062300 What is the difference between portable Internet access and mobile Internet access? A. With portable access you cannot work online while moving very far.
B. Mobile access is less expensive than portable access. C. Portable access requires cables, whereas mobile access does not. D. Portable access requires a cell phone, whereas mobile access requires a notebook computer. Chapter 6: The Internet 32 6 Internet To Go Portable Internet access can be defined as the ability to easily move your Internet service from one location to
another Mobile Internet access offers a continuous Internet connection as you are walking or riding in a bus, car, train, or plane Chapter 6: The Internet 33 6 Wi-Fi Hotspots A Wi-Fi hotspot is an area
in which the public can access a Wi-Fi network that offers Internet service Wi-Fi does not typically provide acceptable mobile Internet access because you can only remain connected within range of the networks hotspot Chapter 6: The Internet 34
6 Portable and Mobile WiMAX WiMAX can be used as a portable technology because Internet access is available to subscribers anywhere within a towers coverage area You use the same Internet service provider whether you are at home or on the road. Mobile WiMAX Chapter 6: The Internet 35 6 Portable Satellite Service
Chapter 6: The Internet 36 6 Cellular Data Services Using cellular phone technology to access the Internet offers mobility that is not yet possible with most of todays wired or wireless computer network technologies Chapter 6: The Internet 37
6 Cellular Data Services The fastest cellular technologies for Internet access are EDGE, EV-DO, and HSUPA Most cellular service providers offer a data service plan for accessing the Internet You can use a smart phone or cellularready PDA to access the Internet by subscribing to a data service plan offered by a mobile phone provider such as AT&T or Sprint Chapter 6: The Internet 38
6 SECTION Internet Services D
Real-Time Messaging Voice over IP Grid Computing FTP File sharing Chapter 6: The Internet 39 6 Question 062400 On the Internet, application protocols provide consumers with many useful services. Which one of the following correctly describes an Internet-based application
protocol? A. Chat and Instant messaging use Internet VoIP protocol. B. Files can be shared over the Internet using FTP or BitTorrent protocols. C. Cloud protocols such as SETI control distributed processing grids. D. P2P is used to encrypt personal information to keep it private. Chapter 6: The Internet 40 6 Real-Time Messaging
A networked-based, real-time messaging system allows people to exchange short messages while they are online Instant messaging (IM) Chat Chapter 6: The Internet 41 6 Voice over IP VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) or Voice over IP, is a technology in which a broadband Internet
connection is used to place telephone calls instead of the regular phone system To set up a standard VoIP system, you can use an inexpensive ATA, IP phone, wireless IP phone, or USB phone Chapter 6: The Internet 42 6 Voice over IP Advantages
Low cost Flexibility Phone number moves with you Disadvantages Quality can vary Must have power to work Chapter 6: The Internet 43 6 Grid Computing A grid computing system is a
network of computers harnessed together to perform processing tasks [email protected] project Cloud computing depends on a grid of servers and storage devices that offer Internet-accessible computing services Google apps Amazons Elastic Compute Cloud Chapter 6: The Internet
44 6 FTP FTP clients such as FileZilla make it easy to upload and download files from an FTP server. Chapter 6: The Internet 45 6 FTP
Chapter 6: The Internet 46 6 File Sharing P2P file sharing uses peerto-peer (P2P) protocols that allow users to obtain files from other users located anywhere on the Internet BitTorrent is a file sharing protocol that distributes the role of file server across a collection of dispersed
computers Chapter 6: The Internet 47 6 SECTION
Internet Security E Intrusion Attempts Securing Ports Routers and NAT Virtual Private Networks Chapter 6: The Internet 48 6 Question
062500 Securing your computer from Internetbased intrusions is an important aspect of computer security. Which one of the following is NOT a useful security technique? A. Setting up NAT on a router B. Activating firewall software C. Checking the status of software ports D. Activating your computers file sharing options Chapter 6: The Internet 49 6 Intrusion Attempts An intrusion is any access to data or programs by hackers,
criminals, or other unauthorized persons Looking for open ports is one of the most common ways of gaining unauthorized access to a network-based computer A port probe (or port scan) uses automated software to locate computers that have open ports and are vulnerable to unauthorized access Chapter 6: The Internet 50 6 Intrusion Attempts Chapter 6: The Internet
51 6 Securing Ports One of the easiest steps to enhance your computers security is to turn it off when you arent using it A firewall is software or hardware designed to filter out suspicious packets attempting to enter or leave a computer
Chapter 6: The Internet 52 6 Securing Ports Chapter 6: The Internet 53 6 Routers and NAT Routers are intended to work on LANs to monitor and direct packets being transported from one device to another A routable IP address is one that can be accessed by
packets on the Internet A private IP address is a non-routable IP address that can be used within a LAN, but not for Internet data transport Chapter 6: The Internet 54 6 Routers and NAT Chapter 6: The Internet 55
6 Routers and NAT Network address translation (NAT) is the process your router uses to keep track of packets and their corresponding private or public IP addresses Chapter 6: The Internet 56 6 Virtual Private Networks It is possible to secure remote connections by setting up
virtual private network (VPN) access to a remote access server in the corporate office Access to a VPN is usually by invitation only. Employees who need to access a VPN are given the necessary instructions, addresses, and passwords to make connections Chapter 6: The Internet 57 6 Virtual Private Networks Chapter 6: The Internet
58 6 What Do You Think? 063100 Should governments be allowed to block access to Web sites based on local religions, politics, and customs? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure 063200 Do you believe that a privately held Internet service provider like AOL has the right to censor the data posted on Web sites it hosts? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure
063300 Should companies like Microsoft, Yahoo!, and Cisco Systems provide blocking technology to foreign governments? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure 063400 Would you use filtering software that was preprogrammed to block pornographic and nuisance Web sites? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure Chapter 6: The Internet 59
Gary Rosenthal, MD, Chair, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University. Julian Solway, MD, Director, Institute for Translational Medicine, University of Chicago. Consuelo Hopkins-Wilkins, MD, Executive Director, Meharry-Vanderbilt Alliance, Vanderbilt University and Meharry Medical College
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