What Works For Women At Work Professor Joan

What Works For Women At Work Professor Joan

What Works For Women At Work Professor Joan C. Williams Hastings Foundation Chair, Director Center for WorkLife Law University of California, Hastings College of the Law Copyright 2013. Joan C. Williams, Center for WorkLife Law. GENDER BIAS IS COMMONPLACE 68%

of women believe gender bias exists TIGHTROPE TIGHTROPE 73% PROVE-IT PROVE-IT AGAIN! AGAIN!

60% MATERNAL MATERNAL WALL WALL TUG TUG OF OF WAR WAR

59% 55% Source: Williams, J.C. & Dempsey, R.W. (in press). What works for women at work: Get savvy, get control, get ahead. New York, NY: New York University Press; Catalyst. (2012, July). Catalyst quick take: Sex discrimination and sexual harassment. New York, NY: Author. Retrieved February 14, 2013, fromhttp://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/sex-discrimination-and-sexual-harassment-0. IMPLICIT BIAS Do you feel more comfortable with people like yourself?

IMPLICIT BIAS If you think someones smart, do you tend to overlook their little stumbles? IMPLICIT BIAS When a woman has a baby, do you worry she wont be as committed to her career? SCHEMAS Expectations associated with members of a group that guide perceptions and behaviors. Schemas

influence judgments of group members influence group members expectations about how they will be judged Image source: (Image purchased from http://www.istockphoto.com) SCHEMAS AFFECT EVALUATION 25% - 46% INCREASE

in women hired when auditions held behind a screen. Source: Goldin, C., & Rouse, C. (2000). Orchestrating impartiality: The impact of "blind" auditions on female musicians. American Economic Review, 90(4), 715-741. SCHEMAS AFFECT EVALUATION Jamal White names yielded as many more callbacks as 8 additional years of experience

The higher the resume quality, the higher the gap between callbacks for black and white names Source: Bertrand & Mullainathan (2004). Poverty Action Lab, 3, 1-27. Greg 4 PATTERNS OF GENDER BIAS Prove It Again! The Tightrope The Maternal Wall Tug of War

PROVE-IT AGAIN! IS COMMON TIGHTROPE TIGHTROPE 73% PROVE-IT PROVE-IT AGAIN! AGAIN!

60% MATERNAL MATERNAL WALL WALL TUG TUG OF OF WAR WAR

59% 55% Copyright 2013. Joan C. Williams PROVE-IT AGAIN! Women need to give more evidence of competence than men to be judged equally competent Triggered by race as well as gender Knobloch-Westerwick, Glynn, & Huge, 2013; Moss-Racusin, Dovidio, Brescoll, Graham, & Handelsman, 2012; Roth, Purvis, & Bobko, 2012; Davison & Burke, 2000; Biernat & Kobrynowicz, 1997.

PROVE-IT AGAIN! MENS POTENTIAL WOMENS ACHIEVEMENTS SHE ISlazy or not tenurable material, engaged in research that will take longer to HE IS reach the publication world.

Source: Williams, J.C. (2007). [Focus group interviews for NSF ACE grant, San Francisco, CA]. Unpublished data. Supporting evidence: Barsh & Yee, 2011. PROVE-IT AGAIN! MENS SUCCESSES WOMENS SUCCESSES ATTRIBUTION BIAS HES skilled.

SHES lucky. Kulich, Trojanowski, Ryan, Alexander Haslam, & Renneboog, 2011; Garcia-Retamero & Lpez-Zafra, 2006; Swim & Sanna, 1996; Igbaria & Baroudi, 1995; Greenhaus & Parasuraman, 1993; Taylor, Fiske, Etcoff, & Ruderman, 1978. PROVE-IT AGAIN! WOMENS MISTAKES MENS MISTAKES RECALL BIAS

Womens mistakes are noticed more, and remembered longer Bowles & Gelfand, 2010; Bauer & Baltes, 2002; Rothbart, Evans, & Fulero, 1979. PROVE-IT AGAIN! OBJECTIVE REQUIREMENTS LENIENCY BIAS

We dismissed a lot of women on the grounds they hadnt finished their dissertationsand then accepted a man who hadnt finished his. Source: Huang, P.M., (n.d.) Gender bias in academia: Findings from focus groups, San Francisco, CA: The Center for WorkLife Law. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://worklifelaw.org/pubs/gender-bias-academia.pdf. Supporting evidence: Biernat, Fuegen, & Kobrynowicz, 2010; Bowles & Gelfand, 2010; Bauer & Baltes, 2002. CASUISTRY Princeton experiment What matters, education or experience?

Source: Norton et al. (2004). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87 (6), 821. POLARIZED EVALUATIONS Polarized Evaluation Fleming, Petty, & White, 2005; Glick, 1980) Diebold, Bailey-Werner, & Zhu, 1997; Scherer, Owen, & Brodzinski, 1991;

Source: Source: (Linville & Jones, Heilman, Martell, & Simon, 1988; Jussim, Coleman, & Lerch, 1987; Weber & Crocker, 1983; Linville & Jones, 1980 Copyright 2013. Joan C. Williams STUDIES OF ACADEMIA Dept. chairs given identical CVs of & Significantly more likely to hire man as associate, women as assistant, professor

Recommendation letters For men: brilliant and original For women: reliable, responsible, meticulous Sources: Dovidio & Gaertner (2000). Psychological Science, 11, 315-319; Wilson, 2004. Lets decide up front what the objective requirements are. Lets go back to the top of

the pile. PROVE-IT AGAIN! PROVE-IT AGAIN! INDIVIDUAL STRATEGIES TIGHTROPE IS COMMONPLACE TIGHTROPE TIGHTROPE

73% PROVE-IT PROVE-IT AGAIN! AGAIN! 60% MATERNAL MATERNAL

WALL WALL TUG TUG OF OF WAR WAR 59% 55%

THE TIGHTROPE TOO MASCULINE | TOO FEMININE To get ahead here, you have to be so aggressive. But if women are too aggressive theyre ostracizedand if theyre not aggressive enough they have to do twice the work. Source: Nadis, S. (1999). Women scientists unite to battle cowboy culture. Nature, 398 (6726), 361. Supporting evidence: Biernat, Tocci, & Williams, 2012; Okimoto & Brescoll, 2010; Phelan, MossRacusin, & Rudman, 2008; Rudman & Phelan, 2008; Bowles, Babcock, & Lai, 2007; Rudman & Glick, 2001; Burgess & Borgida, 1999; Costrich, Feinstein,

Supporting evidence: Asbrock, 2010; Cuddy, Fiske, Kwan & al., 2009; Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2008; Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2007; Fiske, Cuddy, & Glick, 2007; Eckes, 2002. THE TIGHTROPE LIKED BUT NOT RESPECTED | TOO FEMININE PROBLEMS Are women expected to do the office housework? Committee and other service work, plan parties, take notes, clean up the lab, doing administrative work Or to play narrowly cabined feminine roles?

Dutiful daughter Ever-understanding mother (students and colleagues) Haselhuhn & Kray, 2012; Bowles, Babcock, & McGinn, 2005; Heilman & Chen, 2005; Glick & Fiske, 2001; Taylor, 1981; Kanter, 1975. THE TIGHTROPE RESPECTED BUT NOT LIKED | TOO MASCULINE Direct Outspoken Assertive Competitive

Phelan, MossRacusin, & Rudman, 2008; Rudman & Phelan, 2008; Rudman & Fairchild, 2004; Rudman & Glick, 2001; Costrich, Feinstein, Kidder, Marecek, & Pascale, 1975. THE TIGHTROPE LIKED BUT NOT RESPECTED | TOO MASCULINE Are women faulted for Being outspoken Seen more often as arrogant Dismissed as too ambitious Ice queen Nice Work on the Academy

Bettis, Pamela J. and Natalie G. Adams. Nice at Work in the Academy. (unpublished manuscript). THE TIGHTROPE RESPECTED BUT NOT LIKED | TOO MASCULINE ANGER Showing anger tends to increase the perceived status of a man, but decrease that of a woman Source: Brescoll, V.L. & Uhlmann, E.L. (2008). Can an angry woman get ahead?: Status conferral, gender, and expression of emotion in the workplace. Psychological Science, 19(3), 268-275. Supporting evidence: Gupta, 2013; Kring, 2000.

THE TIGHTROPE RESPECTED BUT NOT LIKED | TOO MASCULINE SELF-PROMOTION Rudman & Phelan, 2008; Prentice & Carranza, 2002; Rudman, 1998. S MATERNAL WALL MOTHERHOOD TRIGGERS THE STRONGEST FORM OF GENDER BIAS 79% less likely to be hired

only half as likely to be promoted offered $11,000 less in salary Held to higher performance and punctuality standards Source: Correll, S.J., Benard, S. & Paik, I. (2007). Getting a job: Is there a motherhood penalty? American Journal of Sociology, 112 (5), 12971338. MATERNAL WALL As a mother of two infants, she had

responsibilities that were incompatible with those of a full-time academician. Frasch, K., Mason, M.A., Stacy, A., Goulden, M., & Hoffman, C. (2007). Creating a family friendly department: Chairs and deans toolkit. Berkley, CA: University of California Faculty Family Friendly Edge. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://ucfamilyedge.berkeley.edu/ChairsandDeansToolkitFinal7-07.pdf; Correll, S.J., Benard, S. & Paik, I. (2007). Getting a job: Is there a motherhood penalty? American Journal of Sociology, 112 (5), 12971338. MATERNAL WALL ATTRIBUTION BIAS GAP IN HIS RESUME GAP IN HER RESUME

Hoobler, Wayne, & Lemmon, 2009; Correll, Benard, & Paik, 2007; Heilman & Haynes, 2005. MATERNAL WALL HOSTILE PRESCRIPTIVE BIAS I dont know how you can leave your children. My wife could never do that. Hebl, M. R., King, E. B., Glick, P., Singletary, S. L., & Kazama, S. (2007). Hostile and benevolent reactions toward pregnant women: complementary interpersonal punishments and rewards that maintain traditional roles. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(6), 1499.

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 491512; Schneider v. Northwestern University, 925 F. Supp. 1347 (N.D. Ill. 1996). MATERNAL WALL BENEVOLENT PRESCRIPTIVE BIAS This is not a good time for her. Hebl, M. R., King, E. B., Glick, P., Singletary, S. L., & Kazama, S. (2007). Hostile and benevolent reactions toward pregnant women: complementary interpersonal punishments and rewards that maintain traditional roles. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(6), 1499. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 491512; Schneider v. Northwestern University, 925 F. Supp. 1347 (N.D. Ill. 1996).

MATERNAL WALL HOSTILE PRESCRIPTIVE BIAS Indisputably competent and committed mothers Less likable Held to higher performance standards Correll & Benard, 2010; Correll, Benard, & Paik, 2007; Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2004; Fuegen, Biernat, Haines, & Deaux, 2004. FRIGID CLIMATE FOR FATHERS THE FLEXIBILITY STIGMA

Over 40 percent of academic fathers did not ask to stop the tenure clock for a new child even though it would have helped them to take it. Source: Drago, R. & Colbeck, C.L. (2003). The mapping project: exploring the terrain of U.S. colleges and universities for faculty and families. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University. Supporting evidence: Rudman & Mescher, 2013; Wayne & Cordeiro, 2003; Allen & Russell, 1999. MATERNAL WALL SOME THINGS ARE ILLEGAL Treating men different from women

Denying parental leave to either men or women is illegal So is penalizing either women or men for taking it The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq. (FMLA). Note that the FMLA does not apply to all employers and circumstances. Note further that the legal information contained herein is of a general nature and is subject to change; it is not meant to serve as legal advice in any particular situation. You should contact your attorney to obtain advice with respect to any particular issue or problem. MATERNAL WALL FAMILY FRIENDLY EDGE I turned down MIT to come to Berkeley because they have these progressive family friendly policies

Know what you offer re parental leave, stop-the-clock, part time tenure track? The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq. (FMLA). Note that the FMLA does not apply to all employers and circumstances. Note further that the legal information contained herein is of a general nature and is subject to change; it is not meant to serve as legal advice in any particular situation. You should contact your attorney to obtain advice with respect to any particular issue or problem. TUG OF WAR IS COMMON when gender bias against women turns into fights among women TIGHTROPE TIGHTROPE

73% PROVE-IT PROVE-IT AGAIN! AGAIN! 60% MATERNAL MATERNAL

WALL WALL TUG TUG OF OF WAR WAR 59% 55% Copyright 2013. Joan C. Williams

TUG OF WAR The woman faculty members Ive met that have been older than me are always very encouraging, very helpful and very kind to me. Hall, E.V. (2012, June). [Interview for NSF Tools for Change Project]. Unpublished data. TUG OF WAR

TOKENISM Opportunities for women are very zero-sum. If one woman gets a prized position or assignment, that means another woman wont. And so it breeds a sense of competition. Source: Williams, J.C. & Dempsey, R.W. (in press). What works for women at work: Four patterns every working woman needs to know (forthcoming NYU, February 2014. Supporting evidence: Zatz, 2002; Ely, 1994a & 1994b; Keller & Moglen, 1987; Kanter, 1997a & 1997b.

TUG OF WAR Im not a girl at Google, Im a geek at Google. Marissa Mayer Women who had experienced discrimination early in their careers Derks, Ellemers, van Laar, & de Groot, 2011; Derks, Van Laar, Ellemers, & de Groot, 2011; Ellemers, Heuvel, Glider, Maass, & Bonvini, 2004. TUG OF WAR

Its a tough world out there Youll make us look bad I had to pay my dues TUG OF WAR TOMBOYS vs FEMMES

Ive seen lots of women, senior women, behave that way. And even not just as far as the working long hours, but even adopting male mannerisms. but sort of really aggressive and not putting up with any crapand not supporting younger women. Huang, P.M., (n.d.) Gender bias in academia: Findings from focus groups, San Francisco, CA: The Center for WorkLife Law. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://worklifelaw.org/pubs/gender-bias-academia.pdf. TUG OF WAR FEMMES vs TOMBOYS

Im on kind of a backlash mission ...I wear dresses, I bake cookies for my group meetings, I bring my child to class with me. Ive just stuck it out there and saidIm a woman, Im someones motherIm not going to compete as a boy because Im not a boy. Huang, P.M., (n.d.) Gender bias in academia: Findings from focus groups, San Francisco, CA: The Center for WorkLife Law. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://worklifelaw.org/pubs/gender-bias-academia.pdf. TUG OF WAR

MOMMY WARS I worked long hours and my kids are fine. Childfree: They are just reinforcing stereotypes. Childless: I had to make hard choices. SENIOR WOMEN Remember younger womens experience is different.

TUG TUG OF OF WAR WAR INDIVIDUAL STRATEGIES JUNIOR WOMEN Remember senior women may not have as much power as you think.

TUG TUG OF OF WAR WAR INDIVIDUAL STRATEGIES STAY CONNECTED! Send us your comments and feedback at: www.ToolsForChangeInSTEM.org www.newgirlsnet.com

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