Han China Rome S Bureaucrats at top of

Han China Rome S Bureaucrats at top of

Han China Rome S Bureaucrats at top of hierarchy Emperor = absolute rule/supported by Mandate of Heaven Many peasants, low, but respected b/c of production of ag crops Merchants low in hierarchy b/c of Confucian beliefs Patriarchy Confucianism every had a place and a role. Ren and Xiao patricians = nobility plebians = regular people Army played important role Citizenship offered to many people, first for military service, then later to everyone during the Pax Romana (carrot!) P Ideology = Confucianism Mandate of Heaven = benevolent ruler receives right to rule from Heaven (the gods) Confucian Exam System = somewhat meritocracy 2 distinct periods: Republic ruled by aristocratic patricians in the Senate (about 500 BCE = 1 CE) Empire ruled by Caesar (emperor) put in place by the army; Senate stays around, but had no power (about 1 CE 500 CE) Empire split into 2 pieces during 300s CE East becomes Byzantine Empire; Western part falls into chaos and collapses in 476 CE R Ancestor veneration Mix of Daoist beliefs & Confucian ideology Polytheism Respect for ancestors (but not full veneration, as in China) Became monotheistic and Christian after 300 CE Diverse religions b/c of size of territory

Han China Rome I Mandate of Heaven Imperial Academy for bureaucrats Confucian education = important and respected The Government was thought to mirror the structure of the family (emperor = father, etc.) Benevolence given down, obedience given up the hierarchy Hellenization continued its spread Polytheistic gods and worship of the emperor important until Christianity became the official religion in the 300s CE T Iron weapons Chariots (need for horses from Central Asian pastoralists) Great Wall expanded Standardization of coins, weights, and measurements Iron weapons, chariots, military technology Invention of concrete Great infrastructure (roads, bridges) Aqueducts to carry water to cities E Silk Roads trade of luxury goods out of China (especially Silk) Silver flowed IN to China, in exchange for luxury goods Horses traded INTO China from pastoralists Merchants = low status, but rich Standardized currency Silver flowed OUT OF Rome for Asian luxury goods Horses INTO Rome from pastoralists Pax Romana = stability of govt which allowed an increase in trade Trade around the Mediterranean Sea, as well

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