BRAZIL FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE TRANSITION (19851994) Short-lived triumph of Trancredo Neves Split between Northeast traditionalists and business community of So Paulo Neves respected

opposition politician Following the death of Neves military fearful of domestic insurgency Itamarati Palace Brasilia (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) a second accidental presidency Led ARENA political

party in the senate during military regime Broke with military party when he was not selected as its candidate for president Political Godfather of the Northeast President of Brazil (19851989) Transitory economic recovery Economic downturn 1986-87 Writing a new constitution (1987-88) Constitutional convention dominated by traditional political class Two rounds of voting for president if no

candidate has first round majority Senate & Chamber of deputies favors traditional areas of the country Latin America Contadora Support Group participation Resumption of relations with Cuba Brazil Argentina Common Market Agreement (1988) Foreign Debt (come into line with IMF) Debt rescheduling New loans

Dispute over Pharmaceutical Patents Information Technology Dispute Brazil & GATT (now WTO) Liberalized trade rebulations New economic conditions made Vargas era Autonomy through Distance policy impossible Conflictive elements in Brazilian foreign policy lead to search for better relations with Latin American neighbors International pressure forced Brazil to modify its foreign and domestic economic to deal with economic crisis

Patterned on U.S. Constitutions separation of powers President elected directly by people Bicameral Congress Chamber of Deputies (513 members) Senate:Three members from each state and the Federal District (81 members) Supreme Court (power of judicial review) Ministry of Foreign Relations responsible for handling foreign relations of Brazilian state Known as Itamaraty

Itamaraty's scope includes: political, commercial, economic, financial, cultural and consular relations In above areas it performs the classical tasks of diplomacy: represent, inform and negotiate Based on Article 4 of the Constitution President has ultimate authority over foreign affairs Fragmented left coalesces Brizolas geographically constrained base Lula and the PT make strides toward creating a truly national political party

The Right hangs on GLOBO & Fernando Collor Regional leaders in control of congress Fernando Collor (53%) Luis Ignacio LULA de Silva (47%) Begins by developing

close ties with Washington Some foreign policy disagreements surface Color (highly personal) Preserve good relations with USA Deepen relations with other countries USA no longer main

focus of foreign policy Franco (Itamaraty regains dominance) Mercosur 1991 Treaty of Asuncion

Emphasis on economic benefits of Mercosur/Mercosul Color Process of regional integration continued Mercosur seeen as tool to counter USA Free Trade for the Americas Ouro Preto Protocol converts Mercosur from free trade area to customs Franco

(Celso Amorin Foreign Minister) Improve relations with USA Brazil renounces military-industrial ambitions as set out during military dictatorship Color

Maintains commitments made by Collor Interest in recognition as great power resurfaces Push for permanent seat on Security Council of U.N. Franco (Celso Amorin Foreign Minister) At GATT -adopts less

defensive stance on new economic issues Intellectual property Services Investments Improve relations with USA Color GATT policy of Color maintained Pushes for a more free policy on agricultural commodities

Franco (Celso Amorin Foreign Minister) Itamar Franco as a caretaker president Another accidental presidency Fernando Henrique Cardoso as architect of economic recovery {Real Plan} Resounding victory over Lula Cardoso 54% Luis Inacio Lula de Silva 27%

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