Claiming Authority & Reality A. Formal Writing in

Claiming Authority & Reality A. Formal Writing in

Claiming Authority & Reality A. Formal Writing in Ancient Cultures B. Everyday Uses for Writing in Ancient Cultures C. From Scroll to Book D.Early Print Technology E. The Print Media: A New Culture of Public and Private Space F. The Wired World: Penny Press, Telegraph and

Photograph G.The Re-Wired World: Radio, TV, Internet H.Laying Claim to Authority and Reality A fragment of a bilingual Proto-Hatti - Hittite tablet in cuneiform

characters Anatolia, last part of 2nd millenium BC. Ashmolean Museum. Akkadian cylinder seal, (c. 2300 BC)

The deal is closed by rolling the cylinder across the cuneiform script. Chinese Oracle Bone (Tortoise Shell) Anyang/Shang

14th -12th c. BCE Compare Egyptian hieroglyphics (used from c. 3000 BC - 200 AD) to Mayan writing, also primarily ceremonial (c. 1000 BC - 900 AD)

The Egyptian Book of the Dead. The hearts weight is being recorded by Thoth, the scribal god. Business, religion and legalism. Generally, ancient cultures used writing for business, religious worship, and legal purposes.

It was the province of the few and the powerful. Claiming Authority & Reality A. Formal Writing in Ancient Cultures B. Everyday Uses for Writing in Ancient Cultures C. From Scroll to Book D.Early Print Technology

E. The Print Media: A New Culture of Public and Private Space F. The Wired World: Penny Press, Telegraph and Photograph G.The Re-Wired World: Radio, TV, Internet H.Laying Claim to Authority and Reality However, writing was not wholly the

province of an elite. Writing was needed for common purposes and used by common people. Egyptian Ostraca about donkey taken by Khary bull purchase by Amenmes details of an inheritance

yarn distributed for lampwicks Egyptian Ostraca about donkey taken by Khary bull purchase by Amenmes details of an inheritance yarn distributed for lampwicks Religious plea to Amun for help

on hardships of military life promise to supply donkey list of wood objects with prices Egyptian Ostraca about donkey taken by Khary bull purchase by Amenmes details of an inheritance

yarn distributed for lampwicks Religious plea to Amun for help on hardships of military life promise to supply donkey list of wood objects with prices Amenpahapy accusing his wife royal tomb workforce supplies

on failure to deliver supplies donkey hire and return A common use for writing: shipping records a weight of the empty amphora b name of the merchant, owner,

factor or shipper g weight of the full amphora d official government record of contents Greek amphora handle with

Rhodian stamp, Everyone who saw the rose knew the jar was from Rhodes. Greek amphora handle with dolphin stamp

Compare the development of one form of glyph-style writing To various forms of alphabetic-style writing Alphabetic writing systems favor the

spread of writing as a skill. Instead of a vocabulary of glyphs, built on a 1-picture-to-1-word relationship, there are a fixed number of interrelated symbols representing sounds. Claiming Authority & Reality

A. Formal Writing in Ancient Cultures B. Everyday Uses for Writing in Ancient Cultures C. From Scroll to Book D.Early Print Technology E. The Print Media: A New Culture of Public and Private Space F. The Wired World: Penny Press, Telegraph and Photograph

G.The Re-Wired World: Radio, TV, Internet H.Laying Claim to Authority and Reality What is it like to read a scroll? Trajans Column,

Rome, 98-117 AD A scroll in stone, the end is out of sight. Much easier to use than the scroll, the simple and

durable book was an informationstorage revolution. However, hand-written wood or

leather bound books remained rare, expensive and unique works of art. Book of Hours,

Latin and French manuscript on vellum, fifteenth century. Special Collections; Brown University Claiming Authority & Reality

A. Formal Writing in Ancient Cultures B. Everyday Uses for Writing in Ancient Cultures C. From Scroll to Book D.Early Print Technology E. The Print Media: A New Culture of Public and Private Space F. The Wired World: Penny Press, Telegraph and Photograph

G.The Re-Wired World: Radio, TV, Internet H.Laying Claim to Authority and Reality Frontispiece of the world's oldest surviving book printed on paper, the Diamond Sutra, printed in 868 AD, in the form of a roll (17.5 feet long). The Buddha discoursing with his disciple

Subhuti, surrounded by divine beings, monks and officials. (British Library, London) A page produced by a Chinese engraved wood block in 1095 AD. This method

was a viable technology until the 1700s. Blockprint in Chinese on brown mulberry paper, Fuzhou, Fujian province, China In 1403 the Korean Choseon kingdom established a national metal printing press.

In the mid-15th century, King Sejong established an alphabet called Han'gul. What did the early book-printing process look like? First, a little vocabulary: Incunabulum, (sing.) Incunabula (pl.)

An incunabulum is a book printed using moveable type prior to the year 1501 AD. The Papermaker, a woodcut by Jost Amman (1568). The Typecaster, a

woodcut by Jost Amman (1568). The Printer, a woodcut by Jost Amman (1568). The Bookbinder, a woodcut by Jost Amman

(1568). Gutenberg Bible, printed in Mainz, Germany and completed in 1454 or 1455. Venice became an early printing center.

From 1470 to 1480 Nikolaus Jensen printed 98 known works, primarily ancient classics, legal, and theological literature.

This 1479 Bible, printed on vellum, is an outstanding incunabulum, with illuminated initials and precious miniatures.

Claiming Authority & Reality A. Formal Writing in Ancient Cultures B. Everyday Uses for Writing in Ancient Cultures C. From Scroll to Book D.Early Print Technology E. The Print Media: A New Culture of Public and Private Space

F. The Wired World: Penny Press, Telegraph and Photograph G.The Re-Wired World: Radio, TV, Internet H.Laying Claim to Authority and Reality At last, everyone really can be on the same page. As the price of books falls, it becomes easy to share ideas, to compare texts, to correct errors.

The act of reading can be shared with readers in other locations, and a common culture can be formed around a commonly-owned book. Furthermore, print creates a public forum for inflammatory ideas.

Pictured left, Pope Alexander VI, presented as a demon who declares, "Ego sum Papa" (I am the Pope), in a Parisian handbill of the late 15th century.

http://www.nd.edu/~dharley/ witchcraft/Devil-Reformation.html Early Newspaper, 1674, The London Gazette Early Newspaper, 1749, The Pennsylvania Gazette Chapbooks were small books for lesseducated readers of modest means. They

preserved folk stories. First edition of the popular dime novel, June, 1860.

Widespread literacy and the general availability of books does 2 things It creates a forum for national and international groups around issues of interest. Widespread literacy and the

general availability of books does 2 things It also offers an intensely private experience for individual readers. In novels we take on the viewpoint of other characters.

So far we have been following the progress of writing. Now the story gets more complicated and more interesting. Claiming Authority & Reality A. Formal Writing in Ancient Cultures

B. Everyday Uses for Writing in Ancient Cultures C. From Scroll to Book D.Early Print Technology E. The Print Media: A New Culture of Public and Private Space F. The Wired World: Penny Press, Telegraph and Photograph G.The Re-Wired World: Radio, TV, Internet

H.Laying Claim to Authority and Reality The rotary press, the photograph and the telegraph saturated the world with immediate unmediated information.

Steam-driven Rotary Printing Press The price of a newspaper dropped to one penny in the mid-1800s. Markets developed for specialized subgroups

Youths Penny Gazette Wednesday, 7 July 1852 Photography Matthew Bradys photos

brought the Civil War to nonparticipants. Photography Brady is among the first significant

photojournalists. The Telegraph About 50 years previous to the American Civil War, Claude Chappes experiments

attracted interest from the French government. The Telegraph In 1794 Chappe constructed an optical telegraph for the New

French Republic. From Paris to Lille, a 15-station line of towers stood within sight of each other, spanning 120 miles. The Telegraph

Chappes semaphore system sent messages between Paris & Lille in under 6 minutes, a remarkable improvement compared to the 30 hours it took a

courier on horseback. The telegraph was of broad public interest. The following advertisement invites the British public to see a new technology in action. Some were surely disappointed.

The contribution of many inventors was brought together in Samuel Morses 1854 telegraphic system. The breakthrough? A simple code for the transmission of messages.

Telegraph lines between Europe, India, Australia and China, 1866. Laying undersea cable was enormously expensive and difficult. Only a few British

companies had the capital to undertake the risk. The H.M.S. Agamemnon attempting to cross the Atlantic with telegraphic cable in 1858. A whale comes up to look at the process.

Companies were partly funded by the British government to ensure strategic military advantages. The social changes fostered

by the telegraph foreshadowed those sparked by the Internet In the 1870s a novel called Wired Love was published.

To preserve secrecy, business telegraph codes were constantly developed. Just as constantly, thieves and code-breakers

were intercepting and deciphering messages. Governments passed a series of useless laws trying to regulate what

kinds of code could be written. The combination of the penny paper, the photograph, and the telegraph created a world connected by rapid streams

of images and information. Together they formed a new communication revolution. Sending a telegram or

buying a paper or a book was pretty cheap. But owning and running the equipment was expensive. So the owners of the production equipment have a say in what everyone

knows. What seems unmediated is actually somewhat controlled. The owners of these media, offering the average person immediacy & ubiquity,

also laid claim to reality & authority. Radio, television and the internet have intensified our experience of immediate and ubiquitous information.

Each form makes competing claims to unmediated reality & authority. Claiming Authority & Reality A. Formal Writing in Ancient Cultures B. Everyday Uses for Writing in Ancient Cultures C. From Scroll to Book

D.Early Print Technology E. The Print Media: A New Culture of Public and Private Space F. The Wired World: Penny Press, Telegraph and Photograph G.The Re-Wired World: Radio, TV, Internet H.Laying Claim to Authority and Reality

Radio Guglielmo Marconi began experimenting with wireless telegraph signals in 1895, when he was only 19 years old. His first models sent

signals over a distance of approximately one and a half miles. Radio By the turn of the century, his device was being used for

communication across the English Channel. Soon it was powerful enough to send a message 2,100 miles across the Atlantic Ocean.

After 1907, a ship could transmit messages to stations on shore thousands of miles away.

Radio greatly reduces the risk of sailing and shipping. 1920, Pittsburg, First Radio Station Just 2 years

later, 1922. The Saturday Evening Post Daddy, lets get Los Angeles! Mercury Theater

on the Air October 30, 1938 Orson Welles, reads the radio play War of the Worlds and causes panic up and down the East Coast.

Edward R. Murrow, American news broadcaster. Murrow lived in London in 1940 and produced

London After Dark during the WWII Blitz. In one broadcast, on August 24th of 1940, Murrow

stood in front of a bomb shelter. He said he could see almost nothing in the nights blackout. Bringing his

listeners to the scene, he lowered the microphone to street level so that people in America could

hear the footsteps of Londoners taking shelter from bombs. Print created a public forum and put everyone on the same page.

It also allowed for the intensely private experience of reading. Radio engages the hearing while

leaving the vision of the actual event to the imagination. Radio is also a simultaneously

private & public experience. Meanwhile, the newspapers kept competing in the realm of immediacy and

reality Arthur Felig, aka Weegee, captures New York life for the tabloids, 1930s -1950s Television

In 1921, Philo Farnsworth was a 14-year-old farm boy who dreamed of becoming an inventor like his heroes Edison, Bell and the Wright Brothers.

Evan I Schwartz, Ethos.org Television The idea of electronic television came to him while plowing a potato field on his family's farm in Idaho.

Evan I Schwartz, Ethos.org Television One morning, when he glanced back at the parallel furrows in the soil, the pattern suggested to him that

moving images could be scanned line by line by line with electrons and painted on a screen line by line by line. Evan I Schwartz, Ethos.org

Television Over the next decade, he brought his idea to life pretty much on his own, working at an underfunded laboratory above a garage in San Francisco.

Evan I Schwartz, Ethos.org Why is Farnsworth so little known? David Sarnoff, the president of RCA and the founder of RCA's NBC broadcasting

network, fought Farnsworth over the patent rights. Why is Farnsworth so little known? Sarnoff maintained, on NBC in prime time,

that Vladimir Zworykin, RCA's top television scientist, was television's inventor. Why is Farnsworth so little known?

Historians are currently thrashing out the real TV story. How does TVs social impact compare with that of the telegraph and the radio?

Walter Cronkite removes his glasses as he tells the nation that President Kennedy has died.

TV creates shared iconic moments, engaging sight and hearing together. Breaking

the Berlin Wall We all know that TV news is framed and edited, and uses time delays.

We know that stations reflect the views of their owners and managers. But most of us experience TV

as unmediated reality. The degree of artificiality and mediation we are aware of is a matter of attention &

judgment. Peter Jennings. ABC. World News Tonight. The branding of reality in 2004. Meanwhile

The Internet and the World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee Inventor of the WWW in 1989

A new way of organizing reality. I just had to take the hypertext idea and connect it to the TCP and DNS ideas and ta-da! -- the World Wide Web. Tim Berners-Lee

Inventor of the WWW in 1989 A new way of sharing reality. Actually inventing it was easy.the difficult bit was persuading people to join in. And getting them to agree to all use the same sort of HTTP, and URLs, and

HTML. I'm still doing that sort of thing. The Internet: a compendium of unverified facts, a fractured public forum, a place to play, to buy, to talk, to raise money, to swap, to steal, to show photos of your cat

the home of cranks, scientists, housewives, pornographers, political reformers, slackers, anarchists. The Internet suggests that reality is constructed by consensus. Paradoxically, everyone who uses the Internet for research is challenged to

evaluate the veracity of the information they seek. A blending of media IMUS IN THE MORNING You can listen, watch him on TV, or check out the website. Hes funny, hes venomous, and hes everywhere!

Radio, TV and the internet have formed the latest communication revolution. Access is cheap.

Ownership is expensive. The information appears to be unmediated and uncontrolled but, naturally, owners of stations & networks have a say in what you

see and know. Claiming Authority & Reality A. Formal Writing in Ancient Cultures B. Everyday Uses for Writing in Ancient Cultures C. From Scroll to Book D.Early Print Technology E. The Print Media: A New Culture of Public and

Private Space F. The Wired World: Penny Press, Telegraph and Photograph G.The Re-Wired World: Radio, TV, Internet H.Laying Claim to Authority and Reality Claiming Authority & Reality A. Formal Writing in Ancient Cultures

B. Everyday Uses for Writing in Ancient Cultures C. From Scroll to Book D.Early Print Technology E. The Print Media: A New Culture of Public and Private Space F. The Wired World: Penny Press, Telegraph and Photograph G.The Re-Wired World: Radio, TV, Internet

H.Laying Claim to Authority and Reality Pre-printing press, writing was a media mostly controlled by scribes. Writing served the interests of the powerful in business, in religion and in government. While common people used writing for their

own needs, written documents could not support a powerful public forum for sharing ideas. The printing press immediately became a tool of social change, creating an

international public forum. A print culture encourages comparison & correction. It also suggests that knowledge is stable and that there is some wider set of knowledge that an educated person ought

to know. What belongs in the educational canon? The telegraph was the first real-time world-wide communication system.

It required enormous technological and financial investment and changed the way politics, war and business were carried out. It shrank the time between decisions, the space between nations. The radio, the TV and the Internet are

current competing communication media that, by their ubiquity and immediacy, lay new claims to reality and authority. The Internet, in particular, underscores real-time asymmetry of information.

What purposes do communication media serve now? Whose authority is asserted through the media? How do you make judgments about the reality and veracity of what you see and hear?

What is the relationship between communication technologies, social order and cultural ways of thinking? Credits Hatti-Hittite Bilingual Cuneiform Tablet http://www.ling-phil.ox.ac.uk/postgrad/cuneiform.html Cuneiform tablet rolled over by cylinder seal

http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/educational_site/ancient_ texts/Cuneiform_e.shtml Cylinder Seal http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/First_Cities/art/fc_roll_s eals.jpg Cylinder Seal images rolled out and made visible http://www.diagnosis2012.co.uk/nib.jpg Chinese Oracle Tortoise Shell

http://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/decaroli/f2000/arth384/chinas lreview.htm Egyptian hieroglyphs on wall http://www.csulb.edu/~ttravis/IC/CSULB/links.htm Credits Sketch of Maya glyphs http://www.blowery.org/code/ImageToText.html

Maya glyphs (photo) http://www2.arnes.si/~eusmith/travel/mexico/palenque/050. htm Temple of Inscriptions http://homepage.smc.edu/urmston_william/art%209%20slid es/urmston/15.%20Temple%20of%20Inscriptions,%20Palen que.jpg Thoth records weight of the heart, Book of the Dead,

personal collection. Alternative Image: http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues01/ju n01/images/egypt_book_of_the_dead.jpg Credits Image of demotic script http://members.tripod.com/~ancient_egypt/pas.html Ostraca messages http://

www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/deirelmedine/ostracaindex.html Picti Tituli on amphora http://www.unav.es/hAntigua/textos/docencia/epigrafia/varia/ picti.html Rhodian rose amphora handle stamp http://www.edgarlowen.com/a52ag.html Dolphin amphora handle stamp http://www.edgarlowen.com/a52ag.html

Credits Three Rows of Chinese Glyphs (showing historical development) http://www.paulnoll.com/China/Culture/language-oracle-bone. html Alphabetic Families compared http://www.lgic.org/english/eng-mainphoenix-m.htm

Image of Scroll http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/explore/papyrus.html Trajans Column, Basilica behind http://www.umehon.maine.edu/civilizations/111/forum-b.htm Partial Image of Trajans Column http:// www.thepaolas.com/Emperors/emperors.html Credits

Korean visual dictionary, terms relating to the book http://www.akaikutsu.com/aka/yougo/aka-yogo-01.html Book of Hours http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Medieval_Studies/hours2 5.html Diamond Sutra (Printed) http://www.chinapage.org/print1.html Chinese Block print of Nagarjuna Bodhisattva Sutra, 1095 AD

http://www.nb.no/baser/schoyen/5/5.18/ms2540.jpg Korean Metal Letters http://www.gutenberg-museum.de/index.php?id=30&&selecti on=la# Credits Jost Amman Woodcuts of Printing Technology http://www.psymon.com/incunabula/

Gutenberg Bible with Illustrated Margin http://www.utexas.edu/opa/news/03newsreleases/nr_200307/ nr_hrc030722.html Nikolaus Jensen, Bible http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/dres/dres4.html Ego Sum Papa http://www.wissdok.com/cari/church/bigimages/cchu01.gif London Gazette

http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/communication/collins/436histor y/pictures/london.jpg Credits Pennsylvania Gazette, 1749 (Benjamin Franklin) http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/communication/collins/436histo ry/pictures/franklin.jpg Chapbooks, Tom Thumb

http://www.library.pitt.edu/libraries/is/enroom/chapbooks/to mthumb1.htm Dime Novel History http://www.niulib.niu.edu/badndp/chap6.html Steam-Driven Rotary Press http://www.fofweb.com/Subscription/Science/Sc/ffests0664 1.gif Youth Penny Gazette http://

www.historicpages.com/galindex.htm Credits Matthew Brady Photograph http://faculty.smu.edu/sweisenb/Dead%20Confed%20Peter sburg%201865.gif Chappes Telegraph Arms http://www.ucalgary.ca/~bakardji/ElectricComm/optical_tel

egraph.html Galvanic and Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Advertisement, personal collection Morses Telegraph http://bnrg.eecs.berkeley.edu/~randy/Courses/CS39C.S97/g ifs/key.gif Map of Telegraph Lines, 1866 http:// www.nmm.ac.uk/collections/unicorn/chartList.cfm?category

=Charts&GGCCRange=201,201 Credits Goliah Laying Cable Across the English Channel (alternative image) http://web.ukonline.co.uk/b.gardner/chancabl.html Agamemnon laying telegraphic cable across the Atlantic http://people.deas.harvard.edu/~jones/cscie129/images/his

tory/agamemnon.gif Great Eastern, first successful cable across the Atlantic http://www.cwhistory.com/history/html/GtEastern1.html Wired Love http://www.ieee-virtual-museum.org/media/haJMkdWDsCjH. jpg Telegraph Code Page http://www.ilord.com/larrabee.html

Credits Marconi Photograph http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/e/m/emr150/group.html Ship to Shore Wireless Poster http://www.connected-earth.com/Galleries/ Ourworldoftelecommunications/Atadistance/ Communicatingoverdistance/

KDKA Logo, personal collection Daddy, Lets get Los Angeles! http://www.digitaldeliftp.com/LookAround/lookaround_techsp ot.html Orson Wells performing War of the Worlds http://www.daviddarling.info/images/WarWorldsradio1.jpg Credits

Edward R. Murrow http://blogs.walkerart.org/filmvideo/wp-content/filmvideo/ murrobig.jpg http://medialit.med.sc.edu/murrow_article.htm Listening to Radio, personal collection Arthur Felig, Weegee, photo of Movie Theater Crowd and Murdered Man http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/visualart/61305_weegee08q.

shtml http://www.moesbooks.net/pics/34732.jpg Philo Farnsworth and tube http://www.ethos.org/evan_schwartz.html Philo Farnsworth and Mabel Bernstein http://broadcastpioneers.50g.com/farnsworth.html Credits

Michael Jordan http://ibbab.free.fr/Joueurs/Jordan/images/mjretour06_jpg.jp g Walter Cronkite, Death of John F. Kennedy http://www.io.com/~o_m/jfkaos/images/other/ uncawalter1.jpg Breaking of the Berlin Wall http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/conflict/cold

war.cfm Simpsons http://www.drizzle.com/~lostboy/AirWaves/Simpsons.html CameraMan, personal collection Peter Jennings, personal collection Credits Arpanet Sketch

http://www.directionsmag.com/images/articles/125_figure_1.gif Tim Berners-Lee http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/ Tim Berners-Lee Quotes http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/Kids Blog for America background http://www.blogforamerica.com/ Imus in the Morning (background taken in 2004)

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3036713/ Map of British-owned Telegraph Lines, 1902 http://www.sil.si.edu/Exhibitions/Underwater-Web/uw-peace01.htm

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