Chapter 10 Information Systems Analysis and Design Computer

Chapter 10 Information Systems Analysis and Design Computer

Chapter 10 Information Systems Analysis and Design Computer Concepts 2014 10 Chapter Contents

Section A: Information Systems Section B: Systems Analysis Section C: System Design Section D: Implementation and Maintenance Section E: Corporate Data Security Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 2 10 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False

100100 Tactical and operational planning define long term goals for an organization. 100200 When managers encounter unstructured problems, a transaction processing system can usually supply the answers. 100300 An OLTP system processes transactions in real time as they are entered. 100400 An ad hoc report is a customized report that provides information not available in regularly scheduled reports. 100500 An expert system uses a knowledge base and inference engine. 100600 An SDLC provides a general outline of how an information system evolves. Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design

3 10 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False 100700 System requirements are also called success factors. 100800 DFDs and UML are used to document information systems. 100900 Unit testing is a process that tests all the hardware and software components of an information system to make sure it performs according to specifications.

101000 Throughput refers to the amount of data processed in a particular time interval. 101100 MTBF refers to the average time between failures of a hardware component. Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 4 Section A: 10 Information Systems Information Systems in Organizations

Transaction Processing Systems Management Information Systems Decision Support Systems Expert Systems and Neural Networks Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 5 10 Question 102100 Information systems are classified based on the type of information they collect and provide. What types of information systems are you as an average consumer likely

to interact with? A. Transaction processing systems and expert systems B. Management information systems and transaction processing systems C. Decision support systems and executive information systems D. Expert systems and neural networks Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 6 Information

Systems in 10 Organizations An information system collects, stores, and processes data to provide useful, accurate, and timely information An organization is a group of people working together to accomplish a goal Business Nonprofit organization

Mission Mission statement Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 7 Information Systems in 10 Organizations Organizational charts depict the hierarchy of employees in an organization

Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 8 Information Systems in 10 Organizations Information systems can: Automate routine tasks Make decisions in response to problems

Structured problem Semi-structured problem Unstructured problem Collect and store internal or external information Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 9 Transaction Processing 10

Systems Provide a way to collect, process, store, display, modify, or cancel transactions Payroll, accounting, airline reservations, inventory, point of sale and cellular phone billing Batch processing vs. online processing OLTP system Commit or rollback strategy Detail reports Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design

10 Transaction Processing 10 Systems Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 11 Management

Information 10 Systems Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 12 Management Information 10 Systems

Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 13 10 Decision Support Systems Helps people make decisions by directly manipulating data, analyzing data from external sources, generating statistical projections, and creating data models of various scenarios Executive information system DSSs design decision models and make decision queries

Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 14 10 Decision Support Systems Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 15 Expert Systems

and Neural 10 Networks Expert systems are designed to analyze data and produce a recommendation, diagnosis, or decision based on a set of facts and rules Knowledge base Inference engine Knowledge engineering Expert system shell Fuzzy logic

Neural networks use computer circuitry to simulate how a brain may process info, learn, and remember Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 16 Expert Systems and Neural 10 Networks

Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 17 10 Section B: Systems Analysis System Development Life Cycle Planning Phase Analysis Phase Documentation Tools Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design

18 10 Question 102200 If you are participating as a member of a team on a project to upgrade an information system, what can you expect the team to accomplish first? A. Complete the systems analysis and design according to the systems development life cycle. B. Complete the planning phase to devise a Project Development Plan. C. Complete the analysis phase to produce the Systems Requirement document. D. Complete the documentation of the current system

using DFDs or object-oriented documentation tools. Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 19 System Development Life 10 Cycle Systems analysis and design is a discipline that focuses on developing information systems according to the phases of an SDLC

Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 20 10 Planning Phase Assemble the project team Justify the project Choose a development methodology Develop a project schedule Produce a Project Development Plan Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design

21 10 Planning Phase Justification for new system usually emerges from a serious problem with the current system, a threat to the organizations success, or an opportunity to improve an organizations products or services through technology Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 22

10 Planning Phase An organization must be able to: Make improvements Change the industry Create new products The PIECES framework helps classify problems in an information system Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 23

10 Planning Phase Development methodologies Structured methodology Information engineering methodology Object-oriented methodology PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) Gantt chart Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design

24 10 Planning Phase Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 25 10 Analysis Phase Produce a list of requirements for a new or revised information system Analysis phase activities: Study the current system

Determine system requirements Write System Requirements Report System requirements are the criteria for successfully solving problems identified in an information system Success factors Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 26 10 Documentation Tools The core documentation tool for project teams using

structured methodology is the data flow diagram (DFD) External entity Data store Process Data flow Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 27 10 Documentation Tools

Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 28 10 Documentation Tools Current standard for object-oriented documentation is referred to as UML (Unified Modeling Language) A use case diagram documents the users of an information system and the functions they perform Actors A class diagram provides the name of each object, a list of each objects attributes, a list of methods,

and an indication of the cardinality between objects A sequence diagram depicts the detailed sequence of interactions that take place for a use case Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 29 10 Documentation Tools Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 30

10 Section C: System Design Design Phase Evaluation and Selection Application Specifications Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 31 10 Question 102300 Suppose youve just heard through the office grapevine that your company is going to be getting a turnkey computer system. What can you expect?

A. The system wont be operation for quite a long time because lots of programming and setup will be required. B. Youll be getting the same system used by business competitors. C. You might be asked to join a project team to carry out system analysis and design. D. You might have to change some procedures to match the new information system. Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 32 10 Design Phase

The project team must figure out how the new system will fulfill the requirements specified in the System Requirements Report Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 33 10 Design Phase The project team has to consider the overall

architecture based on: Level of automation Processing methodology Centralized processing Distributed processing Network technology Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 34 10 Design Phase

Software alternatives Programming tools Application development tools Application software Turnkey systems Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 35 10 Evaluation and Selection Decision support worksheet

Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 36 10 Evaluation and Selection A request for proposal (RFP) describes the information system problem and the requirements for the solution Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 37

10 Evaluation and Selection A request for quotation (RFQ) is a request for a formal price quotation on a list of hardware and software Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 38 10 Application Specifications Describe the way the information systems software should interact with users, store data, process data,

and format reports Feature creep refers to the failure to constrain change Changes should be managed formally, including written change requests Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 39 Section D: Implementation

10 and Maintenance Implementation Phase Development and Testing Documentation and Training Conversion and Cutover Maintenance Phase Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 40 10 Question

102400 Suppose youre the system administrator for a large corporate information system that was installed about a year ago. What is most likely your biggest concern? A. Feature creep B. Quality of service C. Pilot conversion D. Application specifications Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 41 10 Implementation Phase

Project team supervises the tasks necessary to construct the new information system Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 42 10 Development and Testing Software customization is the process of modifying a commercial application to reflect an organizations

needs Application testing is performed in three ways: Unit testing Integration testing Test area System testing Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 43 10 Development and Testing

Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 44 10 Documentation and Training System documentation Describes a systems features, hardware architecture, and programming User documentation Describes how to interact with the system to accomplish specific tasks

Procedure handbook Contains step-by-step instructions for performing specific tasks Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 45 10 Conversion and Cutover System conversion Deactivating an old information system and activating a new one Several conversion strategies: Direct conversion

Parallel conversion Phased conversion Pilot conversion Acceptance testing is designed to verify that the new information system works as required Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 46 10 Maintenance Phase Involves day-to-day

operation of the system, making modifications to improve performance, and correcting problems The term quality of service (QoS) refers to the level of performance a computer system provides Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 47

10 Maintenance Phase The computer operator is responsible for operating the computer on a day-to-day basis The systems programmer installs new versions of the operating system and modifies settings to maximize performance The help desk is staffed by technical support specialists who are familiar with the information systems software Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 48

10 Maintenance Phase Maintenance phase costs Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 49 Section E: Corporate Data 10

Security Information System Data Vulnerabilities Information System Data Security Corporate Identity Theft Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 50 10 Question 102500 How easy it is to create a fake site that looks like one for a legitimate business? A. It is very difficult because of all the corporate logos

and other art work at legitimate sites. B. It is very difficult because real Web sites use HTML and HTTPS for security. C. It is quite easy to change the URL of a legitimate site and then put a fake site in its place. D. It is easy to cut and paste graphics from a legitimate site to make a fake site at a URL that is similar but not the same as the real site. Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 51 Information

System Data 10 Vulnerabilities Threats to a corporate information system can affect thousands of people Natural disasters Power outages Equipment failures Human errors Software failures Security breaches Acts of war

Malware Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 52 Information System Data 10 Security No computer system can be completely risk-free, but several proactive measures can protect information systems from threats

Deterrents Preventative countermeasures Corrective procedures Detection activities Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 53 Information System Data 10

Security A data center is a specialized facility designed to hold and protect computer systems and data A disaster recovery plan is a step-bystep plan that describes the methods used to secure data against disaster and sets guidelines for how an organization will recover lost data if and when a disaster occurs Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 54

10 Corporate Identity Theft When a companys brand is used without authorization, the company has become a victim of identity theft The Internet makes it easy to steal corporate identities and use them for phishing scams and fake Web sites Savvy consumers are on the lookout for phishing attacks and avoid clicking links embedded in e-mail messages Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design

55 10 Corporate Identity Theft Guidelines help corporations deal with identity theft Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 56 10 What Do You Think? 103100 Would you prefer online voting to voting at a polling place?

A. Yes B. No C. Not sure 103200 Do you think online voters would disproportionately vote for Republicans? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure 103300 Should online voting be available only to specific groups, such as elderly voters and military personnel stationed abroad, who currently have trouble reaching polling places? A. Yes

B. No C. Not sure Chapter 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design 57 Chapter 10 Complete Computer Concepts 2014

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