Analyzing Information ?? A: Hi, how are you doing? B: What do you mean when you say how? A: You know. Whats happening with you? B: What do you mean happening? A: Happening, you know, whats going on. B: Im sorry. Could you explain what you mean by what? A: What do you mean, what I mean? Do you want to talk to me or not? What is an analysis?
An analysis is an argument in which you study the parts of something to understand how it works? what it means? Why it might be significant? It is basically when you use a principle or definition (or any analytical tool) on the basis of which an object, an event, or a behavior can be divided into parts and examined to reach a conclusion. Things are analyzed To identify key elements
To identify their causes To identify their possible results Method Choices Qualitative Quantitative Observation Observing behavior of individuals or groups in a setting Focus Groups Facilitating a discussion
about a particular issue/question among people who share common characteristics Interviews Conducting one-on-one interviews with key people knowledgeable about a subject Surveying Administering a structured series of questions with discrete
choices Case Studies Using a combination of methods (e.g interviewing, surveying, program data) to describe experiences of people or groups in a real- Program/Event Data Collection Collecting and organizing data about a program or event and its participants
Administrative Data Collection Collecting data (related to program outcomes) that can be obtained from local and federal government sources Triangulation of Data When a piece of data or finding is able to be verified with several different research methods. Qualitative Analysis
1. 2. 3. 4. Read through all data Organize comments into similar themes Label themes Identify patterns, or associations and causal relationships Quantitative Analysis Use mathematical/ computer programs to tabulate information
For scale questions, consider computing a mean, or average For ranking questions consider conveying the range of answers Research Philosophy: Contrasting Positivist and Interpretive approaches Positivist Reality is real exists independent of human consciousness Interpretive Reality is in the minds of
people Human beings are rational creatures governed by social laws Human beings are actors who create social reality by assigning meaning systems to events Science is based on strict rules based on universal causal laws
Science represents reality symbolically in a descriptive way . Problem . Literature . Data . Science is value freeIntroduction Science is not value free, Quantitative . Qualitative . Presentation . Cases . value neutrality is neither
Contrasting Positivist and Interpretive approaches Positivist Interpretive Controlled setting for research Subject is an object in the research Research design fixed Researcher outside Emphasis on reliability Complex, real world
setting for research Subject is a participant in the research process Research design evolving Researcher inside Emphasis on validity Introduction . Problem . Literature . Data . Quantitative . Qualitative . Presentation . Cases . Data Analysis Descriptive Data Analysis
The results are merely used to provide a summary of what has been gathered (e.g., how many liked or dislike a product) without making a statement of whether the results hold up to statistical evaluation. For quantitative data collection the most common methods used for this basic level of analysis are visual representations, such as graphs, charts and tables, and measures of central tendency including averages (i.e., mean value). For qualitative data collection, where analysis may consist of the researchers own interpretation of what was learned, the information may be coded or summarized into grouping categories. Inferential Data Analysis
The results of research should allow the researcher to accomplish other goals such as: Using information obtained from a small group (i.e., sample of customers) to make judgments about a larger group (i.e., all customers) Comparing groups to see if there is a difference in how they respond to an issue Forecasting what may happen based on collected information The Crisis of Interpretation If there are no absolute truths and everything is relative, how can we say anything definitive about anything?
Interpretation Interpretation is an art; it is not formulaic of mechanical (Denzin, 2007, p. 317). However, it is based on systematic approaches to data collection and analysis. It can only be learned through doing. Strategies for Interpretation 1. Looking for patterns 2. Clustering grouping similar experiences or phenomena 3. Creating metaphors mapping abstract
ideas on to more concrete ideas 4. Counting tallying instances of particular ideas or experiences Strategies for Interpretation 6. Comparing and contrasting 7. Factoring determining a factor for a set of related words or facts i.e. what they do or what they are an example of. Strategies for Interpretation 8. Building a logical chain of evidence in explaining how and why particular processes occur (cause and effect), provide evidence at
every stage of that process. Movement through the stages must be logical and substantiated by the data. Validity Threats Holistic fallacy ignoring discrepant data and interpreting events or experiences as more patterned or uniform than they actually are. Elite bias over-relying on more prominent, powerful or articulate informants and negating other voices. A good analysis Should report accomplishment by
highlighting major findings. Should interpret your data by making suggestions as to why the results are the way they are. Should relate and evaluate the data in the light of previous research. Activity Young hospitalized children should be asked the methods for relieving their pain. Secondary data: Children aged 8-12 years old are completely capable of describing what they are feeling and what exactly they want (Pederson, 2000) Primary data:
Dr. Ahson says: School-aged children feel independent by giving suggestions to doctors.(interview) Noman (9 year old, hospitalized boy) says: I like my doctor because whenever I ask the doctor not to give me an injection he doesnt. (interview) When your child was 6 years old was he/she able to express himself/herself clearly? Yes30 % No.70% (survey) Summary Vs. Analysis While summary just describes things, Analysis gives insight into the significance of a piece's
meaning Analyzing Data 6 4 2 0 Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 What pattern do you see?
What does this graph tell you? Who could use this data? How could they use it? Why is this data shown in a ______? Amount spent on various items by tourists during 2012-2013 Accessories photographic film #REF! Italy France Germany
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