Digital Planet: Tomorrows Technology and You George Beekman

Digital Planet: Tomorrows Technology and You George Beekman

Digital Planet: Tomorrows Technology and You George Beekman Ben Beekman Tenth Edition Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Digital Planet: Tomorrows Technology and You Chapter 2 Hardware Basics Inside the Box

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 2 Objectives Explain in general terms how computers store and manipulate information Describe the basic structure and organization of a computer Discuss the computer systems main internal components and the ways they interact Explain why a computer typically has different types of memory and storage devices Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

3 What Computers Do Four basic operations: Receive input: Accept information from outside world Process information: Perform arithmetic or logical operations on information Produce output: Communicate information to outside world Store information: Store and retrieve information from memory and storage devices Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4

What Computers Do (cont.) Hardware components Input devices Output devices Microprocessor (CPU) Memory and storage devices Primary storage Secondary storage Peripherals Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

5 A Bit About Bits Information: Communication that has value because it informs or Information: Anything that can be communicated, whether it has value or not Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 6 Bit Basics

Bit: From Binary digit Smallest unit of information computer can process Can have one of two values: 0 or 1 Byte Collection of 8 bits Can represent 256 different messages (256 = 28) Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7

Bits as Numbers Denotes all numbers with combinations of 0s and 1s Decimal numbers automatically converted to binary Binary number processing hidden from user Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 Binary 0000 0001

0010 0011 0100 Decimal 5 6 7 8 9 Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Binary

0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 8 Binary Arithmetic & Conversions Convert the binary number 1011 to decimal Add 1011 and 1011 Convert 25 to binary Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9 Bits as Codes Codes represent each letter, digit, and special character ASCII: Most widely used Each character is a unique 8-bit code 256 unique codes for 26 letters, 10 digits, special characters Unicode: Supports more than 100,000 unique characters

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10 The Worlds Languages ASCII character set was originally designed to include only English-language characters from 0 to 127 Unicodes international standard character set allows for more than 100,000 distinct codes to include Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Arabic characters Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11

Bits, Bytes, and Buzzwords Byte = 8 bits or one character in ASCII Kilobyte (KB, K) Megabyte (meg, MB) Gigabyte (gig, GB) Terabyte (TB) Petabyte (PB)

1,000 bytes 1,000 KB or 1 million bytes 1,000 MB or 1 billion bytes 1 million MB or 1 trillion bytes 1 quadrillion bytes Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 The Computers Core: CPU and Memory A digital computer is a collection of on/off switches

designed to transform information from one form to another. The user provides the computer with patterns of bits inputand the computer follows instructions to transform that input into a different pattern of bits outputto return to the user. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13 The CPU: The Real Computer CPU often called processor Performs transformations of input into output

Interprets and executes instructions in programs Performs arithmetic and logical data manipulations ALU Arithmetic and Logic Unit Communicates with other parts of the computer system indirectly through memory Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14 The CPU: The Real Computer (cont.) Modern Microprocessor Complex collection of electronic circuits

CPU housed with other chips on circuit board Circuit board containing computers CPU is called motherboard Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15 The CPU: The Real Computer (cont.) Choosing a Computer Type of CPU is important part of decision

Two important factors to consider: Compatibility Performance Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16 Compatibility Not all software is compatible with every CPU. Every processor has built-in set of instructions. CPUs in same family are generally backward compatible. Designed to process instructions handled by earlier models

AMD processors made to be compatible with Intel. Also, software compatible with one operating systems wont work on a different operating system Programs written for Linux cant run on Windows. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 17 Performance Some processors faster than others Performance is determined by: Speed of internal clockmeasured in gigahertz (GHz) Architecture of processor Number of bits processor can process at one time

Typically 32 or 64 bitscalled word size Heat generated increases with clock speed Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 18 Performance (cont.) Multicore Processors Single chip contains multiple CPUs (cores) Run simultaneously Divide work Most new PCs have

at least two cores. Quad core becoming common Manycore hundreds of CPUs per chip. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 19 Performance (cont.) Special Purpose Processors Supplement basic CPU Typical CPU contains graphics-processing unit (GPU) which handles:

3-D graphics rendering Other visual calculations Frees main CPU to work on other tasks Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 20 From Multicore to Cluster Performance enhancing techniques arent confined to the insides of CPU chips. Instead of adding more cores, a large system might simply add more machines to a network.

Parallel processing has been used in high-end servers and workstations for some time. Threaded processing in multicore CPUs is like a microscopic version of parallel processing used in some of the worlds biggest computing networks. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 21 The CPU Typical CPU is divided into several functional units: Control unit Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) includes registers Decode unit About 100 distinct main instructions

Programs often consist of millions of instructions Bus unit Prefetch unit These units work together to complete the execution of program instructions. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 22 The CPU (cont.) Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

23 Green Computing When compared to other industries the computer industry is relatively easy on the environment. The manufacture and use of computer hardware and software does have a significant environmental impact. You have some control over the environmental impact of your computing activities. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 24

Green Computing (cont.) Buy green equipment Use a laptop Print only once Use a green font Take advantage of energy saving features Turn off your computer when you are away Save energy, not screens

E-cycle your waste products Pass it on Avoid moving parts Send bits not atoms Consider hidden environmental costs Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 25

The Computers Memory Random access memory (RAM) Most common type of primary storage Stores program instructions and data temporarily Memory locations have unique addresses Volatiledisappears when power is turned off Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 26 The Computers Memory (cont.) Read-only memory (ROM) Information is etched on chip when manufactured

Stores start-up instructions and other critical information Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) Special low-energy type of RAM Flash memory Can be written and erased repeatedly Used for digital cameras, cell phones, handheld computers Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 27 Memory 1. When you turn on the computer, the CPU automatically

begins executing operating system instructions stored in ROM. 2. The executing instructions help the system start up and tell it how to load the operating systemcopy it from disk into RAM. 3. Once instructions for the operating system are loaded into RAM, the CPU is able to execute them. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 28 Buses

Information travels between components on the motherboard through wires called internal buses or just buses. Buses: Bridges between processor and RAM Buses connect to: Storage devices in bays Expansion slots External buses and ports Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 29 Ports Computer has variety of ports to meet diverse needs

Video port(s) to connect monitors Audio ports to connect speakers and/or headphones USB ports to connect keyboards, pointing devices, printers, cameras, disk drives, portable storage devices, and more Some ports connected directly to system board Others connected to expansion cards Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 30 Peripherals Slots and ports make it easy to add peripherals to

computer system. Some peripherals, such as keyboards and printers, serve as communication links between people and computers. Other peripherals link computer to other machines. Still others provide long-term storage media. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 31 How Memory Works Memory can be thought of as millions of tiny storage cells in a row with successive addresses.

Each tiny cell contains 8 bits or one byte of information. The information my include program instructions, numbers (integers, reals, extended precision reals), text characters, digital code for pictures, and other data. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 32 Memory (cont) RAM chips are usually grouped on small circuit boards called dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs) These are plugged into the mother board.

RAM memory is volatile and is lost when the power is turned off. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 33 ROM and Operating System ROM contains permanent programs (called firmware) that include part of the operating system. When the computer is started, the CPU starts executing the operating system instructions in ROM These ROM instructions are used to start up the system and to copy the rest of the operating system

from disk into RAM. Once the instructions from the operating system are in RAM, the CPU can start executing them. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 34 Chapter 2 Summary A computer manipulates patterns of bits represented by two symbols: 0 and 1. Bits can be grouped into coded messages that represent alphabetic characters, pictures, colors, sounds, and other kinds of information. The microprocessor follows software instructions to

perform calculations and logical manipulations that transform input data into output. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 35 Summary (cont.) Not all CPUs are compatible with each other. Modern CPUs employ multicore or many core processing systems that speed calculations. The CPU uses RAM (random access memory) as a temporary storage area. ROM (read-only memory) contains unchangeable information.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 36 Summary (cont.) The CPU and main memory are housed in silicon chips on the motherboard and other circuit boards inside the computer. Buses connect to slots and ports that enable the computer to communicate with internal devices and external peripherals. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

37 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 38

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