HEALTH PHYSICAL FITNESS AND AEROBICS B.P.ED. IV YEAR

HEALTH PHYSICAL FITNESS AND AEROBICS B.P.ED. IV YEAR

HEALTH PHYSICAL FITNESS AND AEROBICS B.P.ED. IV YEAR PRESENTED BY:Lalit Mohan Tiwari Assistant Professor Department of Physical Education Post Graduate Government College Sec-11, Chandigarh Physical fitness It is the ability of an individual to carry out daily task with vigor and alertness without getting undue

fatigue and ample energy to meet emergency situation. These days, physical fitness is considered a measure of the bodys ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations. The ability to carry out daily tasks with alertness and vigor, without undue fatigue, and with enough energy reserve to meet emergencies or to enjoy leisure time Physical fitness comprises two related concepts: general fitness (a state of

health and well-being) and specific fitness (a task-oriented definition based on the ability to perform specific aspects of sports or occupations). Physical fitness is generally achieved through exercise. Components Of Fitness Physiological Health Related Skill Related Sports

Metabolic Body Composit Agility ion Team Morphological Cardiovascular Fitness Balance

Individual Bone Integrity Flexibility Other Muscular Endu rance Muscle Strengt h Motor coordina Lifetime tion

Power Other Speed Reaction time Other Specific fitness or Skill Related Fitness Specific or task-oriented fitness is a person's ability to perform in a specific activity with a reasonable efficiency: for example, sports or military service. Specific training prepares athletes to perform well in their sports. Examples are:

400m sprint - in a sprint the athlete must be trained to work anaerobically throughout the race. Marathon - in this case the athlete must be trained to work aerobically and their endurance must be built-up to a maximum. Health related fitness Health related fitness is what everyone should have whether they play a sport or not. Health-related physical fitness is defined as fitness related to some aspect of health. This type of physical fitness is primarily

influenced by an individuals exercise habits Keeping the body fit for health incorporates the following components:- Components of Health related fitness Cardiovascular fitness Requires the heart and blood vessels to supply the working muscles with oxygen for long periods of time. Strength Is normally measured by the amount of weight the muscles can lift, or applying a force against a resistance.

Flexibility Is an important part of fitness that we need to keep into our old age. Babies have a natural suppleness and can suck their toes (not that as a teenager you would probably want to do this still), we lose flexibility as we grow older. We should always remember to warm up before competition to stretch our muscles and tendons. Muscular endurance Is the ability of the muscle

to work for long periods of time without tiring. A marathon runner is an extreme case of a person who has muscular endurance in the leg muscles (Hamstrings and Gastrocnemius in particular). Body composition is the amount of muscle, fat, bone, cartilage etc that makes up our bodies. It includes fat mass and fat free mass (muscle mass). A healthy amount of fat for a man is between 15&18% and for women is higher at 2025%. It is important to maintain a healthy percentage of body fat because: Fat-free mass includes bone, water, muscle, and tissues. Body fat is literally fat located within the body

Excess body fat can contribute to developing a number of health problems such as heart disease and diabetes Places strain on the joints, muscles and bones, increasing the risk of injury. COMPONENTS OF PHYSICAL FITNESS Cardio-vascular endurance It is the ability of the blood vessels, heart and

Lungs to take in, transport, and utilize oxygen. Many terms are broadly synonymous with cardiovascular endurance, including aerobic fitness, aerobic capacity, and endurance. For my purpose, I emphasize the ability of the heart to deliver oxygen to the working muscles and their ability to use that oxygen. Body composition Body composition is the amount of muscle, fat, bone, cartilage etc that makes up our bodies. It includes fat mass and fat free mass (muscle mass). A healthy

amount of fat for a man is between 15&18% and for women is higher at 20-25%. It is important to maintain a healthy percentage of body fat because: Fat-free mass includes bone, water, muscle, and tissues. Body fat is literally fat located within the body Excess body fat can contribute to developing a number of health problems such as heart disease and diabetes Places strain on the joints, muscles and bones, increasing the risk of injury. Muscular strength it is the ability to overcome resistance or to act against resistance. Strength refers to a

muscles ability to generate force against physical objects. pure strength is the amount of force produced for one contraction (as when standing up from a chair). Muscular endurance Muscular endurance is the ability to do sports movements with the desired quality and speed under condition of fatigue. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly or continuously (as when carrying a child). It is the ability of a muscle to do continuous work

over a long period of time. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or a group of muscles to perform repeated muscular contractions against resistance for an extended period of time. It is associated with the muscles ability to continue to perform without fatigue. Flexibility It is the ability of an individual to move the body and its parts through as wide range of motion. Or The ability of muscles and tendons to lengthen without damage MOTOR FITNESS

Motor fitness refers to the ability of an athlete to perform successfully at their sports. The components of motor fitness are agility, balance, reaction time, power, speed, muscular strength, muscular endurance, body composition, flexibility and cardiovascular endurance. COMPONENTS OF MOTOR FITNESS:- Speed: - The ability to rapidly contract muscles in a sequenced manner to propel the

body. It is the ability to execute motor movements with high speed. Agility: - The ability to quickly change direction in response to outside stimuli. Agility may be defined as the physical ability which enables an individual to rapidly change body position and direction in a precise manner. Power:-it is the ability of an individual to release maximum force in the fastest possible time. It is a combination of strength and speed. It is the ability to overcome resistance with high speed. Balance:- The ability to maintain the body in

a defined position over changing centers of balance . balance is an ability to maintain the center of gravity of a body within the base of support with minimal postural sway.[1] When exercising the ability to balance, one is said to be balancing. Coordination:- The ability to move the body in ways that requires complex inputs and carefully graded muscle contractions. It is the ability to do motor movements in stabilized and generalized manner. Reaction time:- The ability to initiate movement and respond to a stimulus. It is the

ability to react quickly and effectively to a signal. Reaction time (RT), is the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response WELLNESS Wellness is a state of optimal well-being that is oriented toward maximizing an individuals potential. This is a life-long process of moving towards enhancing your physical, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual, and environmental well-being

Components of wellness:- Physical Wellness : It concentrates on getting in shape, decrease extra pounds, rejuvenate body with healthy eating, restful sleep, vigorous exercise and a new look. In order to attain physical wellness, person must jog, swim, play games and sports, spent time daily outdoor breathing in fresh air, do yard work etc. The physical component of wellness involves the ability to carry out daily tasks, develop cardio respiratory and muscular fitness, maintains adequate nutrition and a healthy body fat

level, and avoids abusing alcohol and other drugs or using tobacco products." Social Wellness: It focuses to improve social and communication skill of an individual. In order to promote social wellness, a person must create a positive and lasting first impression, be distinguished, earn respect, speak in public, articulate your thoughts, make others fell important, visit neighbors and friend etc. The social component of wellness means having the ability to interact successfully with people and one's

personal environment." Emotional Wellness It aims to get more out of every day with laughter and enjoyment, to reduce stress. In order to promote emotional wellness, a person must avoid overload, watch comedy films, lighted up and learn to laugh, distance oneself from drama and chaos, seek the help of therapist (if needed), take an anger and stress management activities etc. Spiritual Wellness

It emphasizes on spiritual renewal and inner peace. to promote spiritual wellness, a person must be true to him/her self , build character, virtues, create a life of order and do meditation, perform prayer, faiths, learning and give respect to religion. The spiritual component of wellness provides meaning and direction in life and enables you to grow, learn, and meet in new challenges." Nutritional Wellness It focus to achieve maximum energy levels

through healthy eating. In order to attain nutritional wellness, an individual must reduce fat,eat more raw fruits and vegetables, eat less fried food, learn new recipes, serve healthy food at home, eliminate junk food, drink plenty of sugar free liquids or juice. Financial Wellness It focus on people to establish financial bonds. In order to foster financial wellness a person must create money management goals, spend less money, get out of debt, set up saving plan, donate some savings to

a charity, shop garage sales and on-line auctions. Personal Wellness It emphasizes to enrich personal life of an individual through growth and change. In order to accomplish this aim, a person must see a fashion consultant to keep himself/herself update, whiten teeth, lose weight, polish shoes, get a new piece of jewelry, clean bedroom and other living spaces, prevent injuries and observe safety.

Environmental wellness: The environmental component of wellness includes the ability to promote health measures that improve the standard of living and quality of life in the community, including laws and agencies the safeguard the physical environment." Occupational wellness The occupational dimension of wellness comprises aspects of wellness that help achieve a balance between work and leisure in a way that promotes health and a

sense of personal satisfaction TRAINING METHODS FOR DEVELOPING EACH COMPONENTS The basic components of physical fitness such as endurance, strength, speed, flexibility can be developed through different training methods that are as follows:Continuous training methods Interval training method Repetition training method Fartlek training method Weight training method Circuit training method

Plyometric training method Competitive and trial method Continuous training methods:- In this method an exercise is done for long time without any break or pause. Because of the long duration of work the intensity is low. This method has two variations:- Slow continuous method:-in this variation the athlete exercise at a certain speed

without any pause for very long duration. Long cross country run are typical examples of slow continuous method. In this method the speed or pace is determined according to the heart rate. For trained athlete heart rate during exercise should be 140-160 b/m.the total duration should not less than 30min.cyclic activities like running, cycling, walking etc.are used for this method. Fast continuous method: - In this variation the work is done at fast for long duration without any break. The total duration should be not less than 20 min.it

improves anaerobic capacity. This improves speed endurance.used for 400mt, 800mt runners. Interval training method:Interval training method involves high intensity activity with incomplete rest. In this method the athletes do exercise with high intensity. And after an incomplete rest the exercise again start with high intensity. It improves speed ability. This method is very effective method for improving endurance of various types.work should be done with sufficient speed and duration so that the heart rate goes upto 180 beats/min.after this there should be a recovery period and when the

heart rate comes down 120-130 beats/min the work should be started again. Repetition training method The repetition method is characterised by high intensity of work with intervals of complete recovery. It is the best method for the improvement of speed abilities including speed endurance. Fartlek training method Fartlek is a Swedish term which means speed play and has been used by distance

runners.fartlek is the form of road running or cross country running in which the runner changes the pace during the run.in this method the exercise is done continuously but with changing pace or speed.the total duration ranges from 15 min to 1 hours.it involves short fast runs with slow running or jogging. Weight training method Weight training is doing exercise using resistance(normally weight) to build muscle strength and endurance.in weight training one can use weights like dumbbells.

Barbells, pully machines and simply ones own body weight as resistance. TEST FOR FLEXIBILITY SIT AND REACH FLEXIBILITY TEST The sit and reach test is a common measure of flexibility, and specifically measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles. This test is important as because tightness in this area is implicated in lumbar lordosis, forward pelvic tilt and lower back pain. This test was first described by Wells and Dillon (1952) and is now widely used as a general

test of flexibility. Test Procedure The basic outline of the sit and reach test is described below. Some of the more popular variations are described in more detail above. equipment required: sit and reach box (or alternatively a ruler can be used, and a step or box) description / procedure: This test involves sitting on the floor with legs stretched out straight

ahead. Shoes should be removed. The soles of the feet are placed flat against the box. Both knees should be locked and pressed flat to the floor - the tester may assist by holding them down. With the palms facing downwards, and the hands on top of each other or side by side, the subject reaches forward along the measuring line as far as possible. Ensure that the hands remain at the same level, not one reaching further forward than the other. After some practice reaches, the subject reaches out and holds that position for at one-two seconds while the distance is recorded. Make sure there are no jerky movements. scoring: The score is recorded to the nearest

centimeter or half inch as the distance reached by the hand. Some test versions use the level of the feet as the zero mark, while others have the zero mark 9 inches before the feet. There is also the modified sit and reach test which moves the zero mark depending on the arm and leg length of the subject. The table below gives you a general guide for expected scores (in cm and inches) for adults using zero at the level of the feet (otherwise add 23cm or nine inches). There are also examples of some actual athlete results.

men women cm inches cm inches super > +27

> +10.5 > +30 > +11.5 excellent +17 to +27 +6.5 to +10.5 +21 to +30

+8.0 to +11.5 good +6 to +16 +2.5 to +6.0 +11 to +20 +4.5 to +7.5 average 0 to +5

0 to +2.0 +1 to +10 +0.5 to +4.0 fair -8 to -1 -3.0 to -0.5 -7 to 0

-2.5 to 0 poor -20 to -9 -7.5 to -3.5 -15 to -8 -6.0 to -3.0 very poor < -20

< -7.5 < -15 < -6.0 Weight training Weight training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size ofskeletal muscles. It uses the force of gravity (in the form of weighted bars, dumbbells or weight stacks) to oppose the force generated by muscle through concentric or eccentric contraction. Weight training

uses a variety of specialized equipment to target specific muscle groups and types of movement. Weight training differs from bodybuilding, Olympic weightlifting, powerlifting, and strongman, which are sports rather than forms of exercise. Weight training, however, is often part of the athlete's training regimen. Basic principles of weight training Overload: To build muscle, you need to use more resistance than your muscles are used to. This is important because the more you do,

the more your body is capable of doing, so you should increase your workload to avoid plateaus. In plain language, this means you should be lifting enough weight that you can ONLY complete the desired number of reps. You should be able to finish your last rep with difficulty but also with good form. Progression. To avoid plateaus (or adaptation), you need to increase your intensity regularly. You can do this by increasing the amount of weight lifted, changing your sets/reps, changing the exercises and changing the

type of resistance. You can make these changes on a weekly or monthly basis. Specificity. This principle means you should train for your goal. That means, if you want to increase your strength, your program should be designed around that goal (e.g., train with heavier weights closer to your 1 RM (1 rep max)). To lose weight, choose a variety of rep ranges to target different muscle fibers. Rest and Recovery.

Rest days are just as important as workout days. It is during these rest periods that your muscles grow and change, so make sure you're not working the same muscle groups 2 days in a row. Always warm up Before you start lifting weights. This helps get your muscles warm and prevent injury. You can warm up with light cardio or by doing a light set of each exercise before going to heavier weights.

Lift and lower your weights slowly. Don't use momentum to lift the weight. If you have to swing to get the weight up, chances are you're using too much weight. Breathe. Don't hold your breath and make sure you're using full range of motion throughout the movement. Stand up straight. Pay attention to your posture and engage your abs in every movement you're doing to keep your balance and protect your spine. Benefits of weight training Weight training tones your muscles which

looks great and raises your basal metabolism...which causes you to burn more calories 24 hours a day. You'll even burn more calories while you're sleeping. Weight training can reverse the natural decline in your metabolism which begins around age 30. Benefits of weight training Weight training energizes you. Weight training has a positive effect on almost all of your 650-plus muscles. Weight training strengthens your bones

reducing your risk of developing osteoporosis. Weight training improves your muscular endurance. Weight training will NOT develop big muscles on women...just toned muscles! Benefits of weight training Weight training makes you strong. Strength gives you confidence and makes daily activities easier. Weight training makes you less prone to lowback injuries. Weight training decreases your resting blood pressure. Weight training decreases your risk of

developing adult onset diabetes. Benefits of weight training Weight training decreases your gastrointestinal transit time, reducing your risk for developing colon cancer. Weight training increases your blood level of HDL cholesterol (the good type). Weight training improves your posture. Weight training improves the functioning of your immune system. Weight training lowers your resting heart rate, a sign of a more efficient heart. Weight training improves your balance and coordination.

Weight training elevates your mood. Benefits of weight training Boost Wellness, Immunity and Sleep Bone Strength and Density Bodybuilding, Shaping, Sculpting and Competing The endurance that you get from your muscles is increased by leaps and bounds meaning that you can not only lift more but maintain it for a longer period of time. warm-up A warm-up is usually performed before

participating in technical sports or exercising. A warm-up generally consists of a gradual increase in intensity in physical activity (pulse raiser), a joint mobility exercise, stretching and a sport related activity. For example, before running or playing an intense sport one might slowly jog to warm muscles and increase heart rate. Types of warming up General warming up Specific Warming up

Warming up should at least consist of the following: 5 to 10 minutes jogging - to increase body temperature 10 to 15 minutes dynamic stretching exercises - reduce muscle stiffness 10 to 15 minutes general and event specific drills preparation for the session or competition. e.g. for a runner Lower leg drills Leg drills Technique drills 4 to 8 easy run outs over 30 to 60 metres - focus on correct running technique (

Tall, Relaxed, Smooth and Drive) Dynamic stretches are more appropriate to the warm up as they help reduce muscle stiffness. Static stretching exercises do not reduce muscle stiffness. For further information see the following articles: How does static stretching affect an athl etes performance Dynamic versus passive stretches Static vs. Dynamic Flexibility Benefits of warming up

A warm-up will improve the effectiveness of training and should be done before every training session. This is fundamental to a safe practice. irect physical effects:Release of adrenaline Increased heart rate Enables oxygen in the blood to travel with greater speed Increased production of synovial fluid located between the joints to reduce friction Allows joints to move more efficiently Dilation of capillaries

Enables oxygen in the blood to travel at a higher volume Benefits of warming up Increase of temperature in the musclesDecreased viscosity of blood Enables oxygen in the blood to travel with greater speed Facilitates enzyme activity Encourages the dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin Decreased viscosity within the muscle Greater extensibility and elasticity of

muscle fibres Increased force and speed of contraction Benefits of warming up ncrease of muscle metabolism Supply of energy through breakdown of glycogen Increase in speed of nerve impulse conduction. Increased Body Temperature - This improves muscle elasticity, also reducing the risk of strains and pulls.

Benefits of warming up Increased Blood Temperature - The temperature of blood increases as it travels through the muscles, and as blood temperature rises, the amount of oxygen it can hold becomes reduced. This means a slightly greater volume of oxygen is made available to the working muscles, enhancing endurance and performance. Benefits of warming up Hormonal Changes - Your body increases its

production of various hormones responsible for regulating energy production. During warm-up this balance of hormones makes more carbohydrates and fatty acids available for energy production. Mental Preparation - The warm-up is also a good time to mentally prepare for an event by clearing the mind, increasing focus, reviewing skills and strategy. Positive imagery can also relax the athlete and build concentration. Benefits of warming up Increased speed of contraction and relaxation of warmed muscles

Dynamic exercises reduce muscle stiffness Greater economy of movement because of lowered viscous resistance within warmed muscles Facilitated oxygen utilization by warmed muscles because hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily at higher muscle temperatures Facilitated nerve transmission and muscle metabolism at higher temperatures; a specific warm up can facilitate motor unit recruitment required in subsequent all out activity Increased blood flow through active tissues as local vascular beds dilate, increasing metabolism and muscle temperatures Allows the heart rate get to a workable rate for beginning exercise Mentally focused on the training or competition

Muscle contraction Muscle fiber generates tension through the action of actin and myosin cross-bridge cycling. While under tension, the muscle may lengthen, shorten or remain the same . Though the term 'contraction' implies shortening, when referring to the muscular system it means muscle fibers generating tension with the help of motor neurons (the terms twitch tension, twitch force and fiber contraction are also used). Classification of muscular contractions

In concentric contraction, the force generated is sufficient to overcome the resistance, and the muscle shortens as it contracts. This is what most people think of as a muscle contraction. In eccentric contraction, the force generated is insufficient to overcome the external load on the muscle and the muscle fibers lengthen as they contract. An eccentric contraction is used as a means of decelerating a body part or object, or lowering a load gently rather than letting it drop. In isometric contraction, the muscle remains the same length. An example would be holding an object up without moving it; the muscular force precisely matches the load, and no movement results.

In isotonic contraction, the tension in the muscle remains constant despite a change in muscle length. This can occur only when a muscle's maximal force of contraction exceeds the total load on the muscle. In isovelocity contraction (sometimes called "isokinetic"), the muscle contraction velocity remains constant, while force is allowed to vary. True isovelocity contractions are rare in the body, and are primarily an analysis method used in experiments on isolated muscles which have been dissected out of the organism.

In an isotonic contraction, tension remains unchanged and the muscle's length changes. Lifting an object off a desk is an example of isotonic contractions. A near isotonic contraction is known as Auxotonic contraction. There are two types of isotonic contractions: (1) concentric and (2) eccentric. In a concentric contraction, the muscle tension rises to meet the resistance, then remains the same as the muscle shortens. In eccentric, the muscle lengthens due to the resistance being greater than the force the muscle is producing. Concentric contraction

A concentric contraction is a type of muscle contraction in which the muscles shorten while generating force. During a concentric contraction, a muscle is stimulated to contract according to the sliding filament mechanism . This occurs throughout the length of the muscle, generating force at the musculo-tendinous junction, causing the muscle to shorten and changing the angle of the joint. In relation to the elbow, a concentric contraction of the biceps would cause the arm to bend at the elbow and hand to move from near to the leg, to close to the shoulder (a biceps curl). A concentric contraction of the triceps would change the angle of the joint in the opposite direction, straightening the arm

and moving the hand towards the leg. Eccentric contraction During an eccentric contraction, the muscle elongates while under tension due to an opposing force being greater than the force generated by the muscle. [3] Rather than working to pull a joint in the direction of the muscle contraction, the muscle acts to decelerate the joint at the end of a movement or otherwise control the repositioning of a load. During an eccentric contraction of the

biceps muscle, the elbow starts the movement while bent and then straightens as the hand moves away from the shoulder. During an eccentric contraction of the triceps muscle, the elbow starts the movement straight and then bends as the hand moves towards the shoulder Isometric contraction An isometric contraction of a muscle generates force without changing length. An example can be found when the muscles of the hand andforearm grip an

object; the joints of the hand do not move, but muscles generate sufficient force to prevent the object from being dropped. Isokinetic Contraction An isokinetic muscle contraction is one in which the muscle contracts and shortens at constant rate of speed. This type of muscle contraction usually requires special, expensive training equipment that increases the load as it senses that the muscle contraction is speeding up. Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.[1][2] Body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as overweight (pre-obese) when their BMI is between 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2, and obese when it is greater than 30 kg/m2.[3] Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or

excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI), a persons weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in metres). A person with a BMI of 30 or more is generally considered obese. A person with a BMI equal to or more than 25 is considered overweight. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Once considered a problem only in high income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in lowand middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. Men having more than 19% of total

body composition as FAT. Women having more than 26% of total body composition as FAT. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease , type 2 diabetes, breathing difficulties during sleep, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.[2] Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive dietary calories, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility

Causes of obesity Diet Sedentary lifestyle Genetics Medical and psychiatric illness Social determinants Infectious agents Consuming too many calories. Causes of obesity Energy Balance For most people, overweight and obesity are caused by not having energy balance. Weight is balanced by the amount of energy or calories you get from food and drinks (this is

called energy IN) equaling the energy your body uses for things like breathing, digesting, and being physically active (this is called energy OUT). Energy balance means that your energy IN equals your energy OUT. To maintain a healthy weight, your energy IN and OUT dont have to balance exactly every day. Its the balance over time that helps you maintain a healthy weight. The same amount of energy IN and energy OUT over time = weight stays the same More IN than OUT over time = weight gain More OUT than IN over time = weight loss Energy balance means taking in (Eating) and using up (Through work,

Yoga & exercise etc) an equal number of calories or Kilocalories. Causes of obesity Not sleeping enough Lower rates of smoking (smoking suppresses appetite). Hypothyroidism Cushing syndrome Depression What is Body Mass Index (BMI)? The BMI is a statistical measurement

derived from your height and weight. Although it is considered to be a useful way to estimate healthy body weight, it does not measure the percentage of body fat. The BMI measurement can sometimes be misleading - a muscleman may have a high BMI but have much less fat than an unfit person whose BMI is lower. However, in general, the BMI measurement can be a useful indicator for the 'average person'. BMI is calculated by dividing the subject's mass by the square of his or her height,

typically expressed either in metric or US "Customary" units: Metric: BMI = kilograms / meters2 US/Customary and imperial: BMI = lb * 703 / in2 (Where lb is the subject's weight in pounds and in is the subject's height in inches.) BMI Classification Less than 18.5 underweight

18.524.9 normal weight 25.029.9 is overweight 30.034.9 is class I obesity 35.039.9

class II obesity Over 40.0 class III obesity Management of Obesity Dieting Exercise & Physical activity Weight loss programs Medication Weight loss surgery (bariatric surgery) MUSCLES

1. Galea Aponeurotica 2. Epicranius 3. Orbicularis Oculi 4. Nasalis 5. Levator Labii Superioris

6. Zygomaticus major & minor 7. Orbicularis Oris 8. Risorius 21.External Abdominal Oblique 22 Biceps Brachii 23 Brachialis 24 Pronator Teres 25 Brachioradialis 26

Flexor Carpi Radialis 27 Extensor Carpi Radialis 28 Tensor Fasciae Latae 9. Depressor Anguli Oris 29 Iliopsoas 10. Depressor Labii Inferioris 30 Pectineus 11. Mentalis 31 Sartorius 12. Omohyoid

32 Adductor Longus 13. Sternohyoid 33 Gracilis 14. Sternal Head of Sternocleidomastoid 34 Rectus Femoris 15. Scalene 35 Vastus Intermedius 16. Trapezius 36 Vastus Lateralis 17. Deltoid

37 Vastus Medialis 18. Pectoralis Major 38 Gastrocnemius 19. Serratus Anterior 39 Peroneus Longus 20. Rectus Abdominis 40 Tibialis Anterior 41. Soleus 42 Peroneus Brevis 43. Extensor Digitorum Longus

5. Trapezius 6. Deltiod 7. Teres Minor 8. Teres Major 9. Triceps Brachii 10. Latissimus Dorsi 11. Brachioradialis 12. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus 15 Extensor Digitorum 20. Gluteus Medius & Gluteus Minimus (underneath Gluteus

Medius) 21. Gluteus Maximus 22. Vastus Lateralis 23. Gracilis 24. Adductor Magnus 25. Biceps Femoris 26. Semitendinosus 27. Semimembranosus 28. Gastocnemius

29. Soleus NUTRITION Nutrition is the science of food, which deals with all the nutrients which are required in adequate amount for proper growth and development of the human body. Good nutrition means maintaining a nutritional status that enables us to grow well, and enjoy good health. Balanced diet A balanced diet must contain carbohydrate,

protein, fat, vitamins, mineral salts and fibre. It must contain these things in the correct proportions. A balanced diet is defined as one which contains a variety of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for energy, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, fats, carbohydrate and other nutrients is adequately met for maintaining health, vitality and general wellbeing and also make a small provision for extra nutrients to withstand short duration of leanness Nutrient The term nutrient or food factor is used for

specific dietary constituents such as proteins, vitamins and minerals. Nutrients are organic and inorganic complexes contained in food. There are about 50 nutrients which are normally supplied by the food we eat. Each nutrient has specific functions in the body. Most natural foods contain more than one nutrient. Types of Nutrient Macronutrients: These are proteins, fats and carbohydrates which are often called proximate principles because they form the bulk of food. In the Indian dietary, they

contribute to the total energy intake in the following proportions. Proteins 7 to 15 per cent Fats 10 to 30 per cent Carbohydrates 65 to 80 per cent Micronutrients: These are vitamins and minerals. They are called micronutrients because they are required in small amounts which may vary from a fraction of a milligram to several grams.

Energy-Yielding Foods Carbohydrates Fats(Fats are the richest source of energy of our body) Body-building Foods Proteins Protective Foods Vitamins Some vitamins such as vitamin B complex and vitamin C are water-soluble, where as vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble Minerals Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iodine,

Iron Roughage Indigestible fibrous material in the food is known as roughage, such as cellulose in fruits and vegetables and connective tissue in meat and fish. It is primarily a waste but it does serve some important purpose in the entire process of digestion and absorption This energy-less stuff helps the digestive system to perform its functions efficiently Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the most important source of energy. They contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. The first part of the name "carbo-" means that they contain Carbon. The second part of the name "-hydr-" means that they contain Hydrogen. The third part of the name "-ate-" means that they contain Oxygen. In all carbohydrates the ratio of Hydrogen atoms to Oxygen atoms is 2:1 just like water. We obtain most of our carbohydrate in the form of starch. This is found in potato, rice, spaghetti, yams, bread and cereals. Our digestive system turns all this starch into another carbohydrate called glucose. Glucose is carried around the body in the blood and is used by our tissues as a source of energy. (See my pages on respiration and balanced chemical equations.) Any glucose in our food is

absorbed without the need for digestion. We also get some of our carbohydrate in the form of sucrose; this is the sugar which we put in our tea and coffee (three heaped spoonfuls for me!). Both sucrose and glucose are sugars, but sucrose molecules are too big to get into the blood, so the digestive system turns it into glucose. Proteins Proteins are required for growth and repair. Proteins contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and sometimes Sulphur. Proteins are very large molecules, so they cannot get directly into our blood; they must be turned into amino-acids by the

digestive system. There are over 20 different amino-acids. Our bodies can turn the amino-acids back into protein Fats Like carbohydrates, fats contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. Fats are used as a source of energy: they are also stored beneath the skin helping to insulate us against the cold. Do not think that by avoiding fat in your diet you will stay thin and elegant! If you eat too much carbohydrate and protein, you will convert some of it into fat, so you will put on weight. You must balance the amount of energy containing foods with the

amount of energy that you use when you take exercise. You must have some fat in your diet because it contains fat soluble vitamins. Vitamins Vitamins are only required in very small quantities. There is no chemical similarity between these chemicals; the similarity between them is entirely biological. Vitamin A: good for your eyes. Vitamin B: about 12 different chemicals. Vitamin C: needed for your body to repair itself.

Vitamin D: can be made in your skin, needed for absorption of Calcium. Vitamin E: the nice one - reproduction? Mineral Salts These are also needed in small quantities, but we need more of these than we need of vitamins. Iron: required to make haemoglobin. Calcium: required for healthy teeth, bones and muscles. Sodium: all cells need this, especially nerve cells. Iodine: used to make a hormone called

thyroxin Fibre We can not digest cellulose. This is a carbohydrate used by plants to make their cell walls. It is also called roughage. If you do not eat foods materials which contain fibre you might end up with problems of the colon and rectum. The muscles of you digestive system mix food with the digestive juices and push food along the intestines by peristalsis; if there is no fibre in your diet these movements cannot work properly

Water Surprisingly, water is no food but an inorganic compound of the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen. This energy-less liquid only helps preparing food for assimilation by the body. About 65 to 75 percent of human body is all water. In our body, water: regulates the body temperature through sweating and evaporation; provides channel for excretion of waste products of the body, and also takes away latent heat so that the skin cools down and we feel good; serves as a medium for carrying out essential biochemical

reactions; makes it possible to transport dissolved nutrients to their intended place in the body; and finally reduces the impact of friction among various organs and bones during movement because it is an excellent lubricant. A Balanced Diet You must have carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals salts and fibre in the correct proportions. If there is not enough protein, you will not be able to grow properly and you will not be able to repair yourself i.e. wounds will not heal properly. If you do not have enough

energy containing foods you will feel very tired, you will not have enough energy. If you have too much energy containing foods you will become overweight. If you think that you are overweight you might try taking more exercise to "burn off" some of the excess food which you ate at you last meal. Dietary Goals Dietary goals of an individual are relative to his/her (a) needs, (b) objectives, (c) kind of activity to be undertaken and how long etc. All countries should develop a national nutrition and food policy setting out dietary goals for achievement. The dietary goals

(prudent diet) recommended by various Expert Committees of the World Health Organization (WHO) are as below: dietary fat should be limited to approximately 15 -30 per cent to total daily intake: saturated fat should contribute no more than 10 per cent of the total energy intake; unsaturated vegetable oils should be substituted for the remaining fat requirement; excessive consumption of refined carbohydrate should be avoided; some amount of carbohydrate rich in natural fibre should be taken; sources rich in energy such as fats and alcohol should be restricted; salt intake should be reduced to an average of not more than 5gm

per day; (salt intake is more in tropical countries. In India it averages 15gm per day). protein should account for approximately 10 -15 per cent of the daily intake; junk food such as colas, ketchups, and other foods that supply empty calories should be reduced. There may be conditions under which the above recommendations for daily food intake do not apply. For example, diet should be adapted to the specials needs of growth, pregnancy, lactation, physical activity, and medical disorders (e.g. diabetes). Recommended daily allowance

The term recommended daily intake (RDA) is defined as the amounts of nutrient sufficient for the maintenance of health in nearly all people. They are reference standards of nutritional intakes. For all nutrients, except energy, estimates of allowances are based on the defined minimum requirement plus a safety margin, often generous, for individual variation and stresses of every day life. In some cases, this has entailed adding to the

observed mean, twice the standard deviation of the distribution of minimum requirement for the subjects measured. This value will more than meet the requirement of 97.5 per cent of population. In fact, for more individuals this level will be in excess of their needs. It is considered that such excessive consumption of nutrients is not injurious to health. It is important to emphasize that the recommended intake of nutrients does not apply to sick people. The recommended intake of nutrients represents value judgments based on the existing knowledge of nutritional sciences. The Indian Council of

Medical Research has recommended the following diet for adult men and women (each item in gm.) Adult Men Adult Women Food Item Cereals

Sedent ary 460 Modera Heavy te work work 520 670 Sedent ary 410 Modera Heavy te work work

440 575 Pulses 40 50 60 40 45

50 Leafy Vegetabl es Other Vegetabl es Roots & Tubers Milk 40 40

40 100 100 50 60 70 80

40 40 100 50 60 80 50 50

60 150 200 250 100 150 200

Oil & Fat 40 45 65 20 25 40 Sugar or

Jaggery Fruits 30 35 55 20 20 40

30 40 65 30 40 60 The diets for upcoming sportspersons have been recommended as

given below: Serial No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12 13. Item Cereal & Cereal Products a.Wheat Flour b.Rice c.Bread d.Biscuits e.Dalia, Porridge, Sevian or Custard Pulses

Vegetables a.Seasonal b.Potato c.Tomato d.Onion e.Lemon Milk Meat/Fish/Chicken Or Paneer (For Vegetarians) Fruits Sugar Refined Oil Butter

Jam Eggs Spices & Condiments Tea Leaves For 1014-year old 150 gm. 15 years and over 300 gm. 100 gm. 120 gm. 4 6 Nos. 30 gm.

150 gm. 120 gm. 4 6 Nos. 30 gm. 70 gm. 200 gm. 100 gm. 50 gm. 50 gm. 2 Nos. 700 gm. 150 gm. 75 gm.

200 gm. 100 gm. 100 gm. 100 gm. 2 Nos. 150 gm. 60 gm. 40 gm. 20 gm. 20 gm. 1 No. -

150 gm. 100 gm. 60 gm. 20 gm. 20 gm. 2 Nos. 10 20 gm 5 gm. 200 gm. 100 gm. Aerobics Aerobics is a form of physical exercise

that combines rhythmic aerobic exercise with stretching andstrength training routines with the goal of improving all elements of fitness (flexibility, muscular strength, and cardio-vascular fitness). It is usually performed to music and may be practiced in a group setting led by an instructor, although it can be done solo and without musical accompaniment. Types Of Aerobic Exercises Freestyle aerobics Step aerobics Sport aerobics

Water aerobics Yoga postures Types Of Aerobic Exercises Indoor Indoor or outdoor stair climbing jumping rope elliptical trainer indoor rower

Stairmaster stationary bicycle treadmill Outdoor cross-country skiing cycling inline skating jogging nordic walking kettlebell swimming kickboxing What does the term "oxygen

debt" mean? One definition of oxygen debt is "where the demand for oxygen is greater than the supply". In practical terms this means that your body is working hard, you are breathing in a lot of oxygen but you cannot absorb enough to cope with the level of activity. If this happens, your body is mainly utilizing the anaerobic energy system and as a result, lactic acid builds up as an undesirable waste product. This system can only be sustained for about 60 seconds (depending on the individual) before severe fatigue sets in and you would have to take time to recover. The amount of oxygen "owed" to the body in order to recover is called the oxygen debt.

An example of this is if you run a hard race like the 4 00 metres where you start and finish using mainly the anaerobic systems. Soreness and fatigue sets into the muscles and you need to "repay" your body with oxygen after the race in order to recover. Oxygen debt the oxygen that must be used in the oxidative energy processes after strenuous exercise to reconvert lactic acid to glucose and decomposed ATP and creatine phosphate to their original states the volume of extra oxygen consumed after

exercise. This is most obvious immediately after short bursts of intense activity when a person breathing heavily is said to be paying off the oxygen debt. The term implies that the oxygen has been borrowed from a store during activity and replaced afterwards. most exercise physiologists prefer to describe the extra oxygen as recovery oxygen or excess POST E X E RCISE OXY GEN CONSUMPTIO N ( EPOC), rather than oxygen debt. Second wind Second wind is a phenomenon in distance running,

such as marathons or road running (as well as other sports), whereby an athlete who is too out of breath and tired to continue suddenly finds the strength to press on at top performance with less exertion. The feeling may be similar to that of a "runner's high", the most obvious difference being that the runner's high occurs after the race is over. [1] Some scientists believe the second wind to be a result of the body finding the proper balance of oxygen to counteract the buildup of lactic acid in the muscles. [2] Others claim second winds are due to endorphin production, while still others believe it to be purely psychological.

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