Слайд 1 - inecon.org

Слайд 1 - inecon.org

International Scientific Conference The Triple Helix and Innovation-Based Economic Growth: New Frontiers and Solutions Tomsk September 11-13, 2014 Studying and Building Innovation Clusters: an Economic Growth Dimension Nataliya Smorodinskaya, Daniil Katukov Institute of Economics, Russian Academy of Sciences PS 14 Dimensions of Studying and Building Innovation Clusters: European Lessons New normal in growth 2014 (IMF forecast): global GDP - 3.6% , developed - 2.3%, developing - 5.3%

Since 2H 2013 global activity strengthened , but the pickup was uneven: advanced economies steadily recovering, emerging markets slowing or running uneven, esp. BRICs Divergence in dynamics between developed and developing worlds (GDP, annualized semiannual percent change) GDP in 2014, % EU 1.6, US 1.7 China 7.4 Brazil 1.3 India 5.4 Sources: IMF, WEO Apr 2014 Quality of growth has started to shape the balance between nations in terms of their economic dynamics and sustainability Global crisis of 2007-2009 has pushed economies towards a new organizational pattern based on clusters and other innovation ecosystems meant to produce innovations in the XXI century Evolution of innovation models user-driven

innovation (von Hippel 1985) producer innovation (Schumpeter 1934) strategic innovation (Hamel & Prahalad 1994) collaborative innovation open innovation networks (Gloor 2005) (Chesbrough 2003) Source: Russell, 2011 Eco stands for highlighting non-linear nature of innovation and the key role of collaboration (horizontal interactive networking) to generate it. To master innovation-led growth economies are embarking on a new, cluster-oriented model of industrial policy, a functional synthesis of its two historical predecessors Types of

Modernization Model and goal of industrial policy Typical economies and best practice Governments status and functions Mode of government interventions Pattern of business environment Catching-Up Industrialization Classic, or vertical Transition to a market economy Neo-liberal, or horizontal

Post-industrial transition Systemic, or clusteroriented (critical mass of strong industries) (critical mass of strong market institutions) (critical mass of strong clusters and innovation ecosystems) Developing systems Transition systems (young EU-members) Developed, developing and transition systems Supervisor on the free market

Equal partner and interface-manager (Japan in 1950s, Korea in 1960s) Supervisor and developer (sets priorities and shapes industrial structure ) Vertical (Scandinavian nations) (sets and supports institutional context) (facilitates networking, improves business environment) Horizontal

New horizontal measures with vertical projections (selecting industries, and picking winners) (soft framework interventions across all sectors) Mostly hierarchic ties Mix of vertical and horizontal ties (matching winners across and within clusters) Mostly horizontal ties and network collaboration Authors elaboration based on: Rodrik 2008, Warwick 2013, WEF 2013 Modern cluster literature, stemming from Porters ideas (Delgado, Stern, Ketels, Lindqvist,

Slvell, others), treats regional clusters as ecosystems able to generate continual innovation (competitiveness upgrading), thus making a difference with other kinds of agglomerations and networks HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL Two definitions of clusters: descriptive (classical): a geographically proximate group of interconnected companies, suppliers, service providers and associated institutions in a particular field linked by externalities of various types [Porter 2003, p.562]. Michael Porter conceptual: a holistic model of relationship between geographical proximity and industrial competitiveness, which generates localized externalities through coexistence of competition and collaboration [Porter 1990, Porter 1998, Ketels 2013] Regional innovation clusters (RICs) are sophisticated and superdynamic systems that may be described in three dimensions: 1. A special class of agglomerations (groups of colocated and related companies) that serve as new building blocks of todays industrial structure and as specialized regional (localized) nodes of GVCs that run across the world

2. A special class of networks which function as THbased innovation ecosystems and generate unique synergy effects of continual innovation 2. A special class of economic projects (cluster initiatives) based on relationship contracts and led by a TH-type cluster organization Authors generalization of cluster literature : Slvell 2009, Porter & Ketels 2009, etc The dynamism of modern RICs as production systems If and when becoming a specialized node of GVC, clusters enjoy a mobile combination of local and global resource flows (glocality) I global mobility II mixed mobility III local business environment This lets cluster participants to upgrade their resources in a mutually reinforcing manner, which continually enhances their dynamics and productivity Source: Solvell, Lindqvist, Ketels 2003, Malmberg 2003

RIC as a specific ecosystem among various kinds of networks Adapted from: Anderson et al. The Cluster Policies Whitebook, 2004 collaborative partners of various profile form cluster ecosystem (TCI, 2013). self-governance through institutions for collaboration (cluster managers) under cluster project collaboration of Triple Helix actors forms critical mass for innovative synergy effects Not all networks treated as clusters in national cluster programs are real RICs that can generate innovation synergy Three patterns of cluster-like networks in world practice Authors generalization: OECD, 2007, 2009; VINNOVA, 2010; DASTI, 2011; Porter & Ketels, 2009; Ganne & Lecler, 2009 Three types of clusters in Germany (since 1995, cluster programs since 2003) Governmen t funds (federal or federal lands) Private investment s

Based on: Meier zu Kcker , 2009 1 Focal models (around a key actor). Grow in breadth but without network externalities, fully depend on budget funds 2 State governed networks of several cluster groups. Lack of dynamism, conflict of interests, high dependence on budget funds 3 Regional innovation clusters . High dynamism, THM, self-sustained growth , increasing reliance on private investments As a special class of projects, clusters are open-end THtype initiatives participants are networked via a membership in a cluster organization project is realized by a combination of cluster governance (a team representing THactors) with cluster management (several professionals) Management tasks are very specific: a continual removal of communication gaps to bridge stakeholders for collaborative innovation According to European Cluster Observatory (Greenbook 2.0, 2013): about 1085 cluster projects have been launched worldwide (mostly in OECD members) 356 projects in 50 countries have been studied (incl. 254 projects within EU) How can an industrial agglomeration transform itself into a RIC? Implementation of Hessenmetall cluster initiative (Germany)

Space dimension: networks emerge from local to global, clusters locally Interactions: networks rely on cooperation, clusters - on coopetition Overlapping space: when co-located actors start networking, they pool together agglomeration effects with collaboration externalities, which leads Based on: Sydow 2006, Bode 2011 to innovation synergy But to become a sustainable RIC the group needs a TH-based cluster governance and good cluster management (Andersson et al. 2004, Solvell 2009) From industrial complexes to RICs : sophistication of production and growth models Economic externalities: from Third Italy to RICs

Polycentric networks of local SMEs (mainly horizontal links) Third Italy Concentric circles of SMEs around key actor (mostly hierarchic links) Industrial clusters Regional innovation clusters Effects of co-location scale, social proximity, sporadic innovation Agglomeration + limited network effects scale, scope, linear innovation Agglomeration + network effects + collaboration synergy

(horizontal links streamlined through scale, scope, interactive innovation (competitiveness a vertical project-led upgrading) Governments should promote TH-collaboration in RICs to discipline ) reinforce their network externalities , and in this way, to leverage aggregate gains in competitiveness, rather than cultivate agglomerations as such (Greenbook 2.0, Ketels 2012, Nallari & Griffith 2013) From industry-based to cluster-based economic systems Evolution of agglomerations mid-late 2000s Emanation of network order mid 1990s-early 2000s Globalization (CVCs) mid 1980s- early 1990s Internalization of markets 1970-s-early 1980s Mature markets Beccatinis industrial

districts (networks of local SMEs) Regional innovation clusters (TH-based) Porters industrial clusters (focal networks of large firms & SMEs) Transnational intercluster ecosystems (Oresund, Star Dust, ScanBalt Bioregion) Innovation synergy effects of economywide scale Large industrial corporations Traditional markets Based on: Ganne & Lecler 2009, Porter & Ketels 2009, Eriksson 2010 Only upon assuming a cluster-based structure and TH-matrix economies can obtain sustainability under any global rapids and uncertainties

resund Region is a striking example of transnational innovation ecosystem Under a common cluster umbrella project Danish and Swedish border regions are developing a unique form of inter-cluster collaboration called double triple helix Cluster 55 (founded by Lund University in 1999) is one of the strongest European clusters. 60% of networking and collaboration cases are now self-developed and dont need any www.cluster55.org; more facilitation from the cluster management Sources: Hansen & Serin,2010 , Meier zu Kcker 2010, Karlsson et al. 2010 Sweden and other Nordic nations are global front-runners in imbedding the cluster idea and TH-matrix in micro- and macroeconomic policies The EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (2009)

follows Scandinavian growth model in line with Porters ideas and the new industrial policy approaches: to support growth through continual improvement of business environment, enabling inter-organizational networking and clustering, i.e. to apply horizontal institutional measures instead of vertical monetary and fiscal stimulators by cultivating TH-links to move from certain clusters to a program-led clusterization of economy at all levels and in all sectors (industrial, financial, administrative) Sources: Christensen, Thomsen & Lomholt 2011, Ketels 2012 Outcomes : 50 strong transnational clusters across the Region GCI-2013: BSR 20th place (Sweden - 6, Estonia - 32, Russia 64) GII-2014: Sweden -3nd place, Finland 4th , Denmark -8 At the EU-wide level, the cluster approach is integrated both into Cohesion Policy & Integrated Industrial Policy Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 Integrated Industrial Policy (with S3 as stipulation for funding)

Smart Specialization Strategies (S3): To move regions at designing their specific development strategies built on existing strengths To integrate the cluster idea into regional strategies To push regions to more innovative activities through TH-based cluster projects To mobilize resources at different levels when implementing regional strategies Cluster approach: (as Europe 2020 flagship initiative) Mix of policies (competition, infrastructure, manufacturing, sectors level) To create an attractive business environment by removing barriers (as key objective )

To stimulate investment in Advanced Manufacturing and Key Enabling Technologies To strengthen European value chains and create a single European market Cluster approach: Strong conceptual basis for realizing S3 Cluster initiatives are tools to examine regional strengths and TH-stakeholders engagement Clusters are tools to create regional innovation ecosystems and integrate SMEs into GVCs Basis to integrate industrial policy goals into S3 (EU Commissions proposal, 2014) Funding: 351.8 bn, or 32.5% of EU 2014-2020 budget Funding: 80 bn Horizon 2020 + 100 bn ESIF + money from other programs & EU funds Sources: European Commission 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014; Ketels 2013; Ranga 2013 Some conclusions 1. Real clusters are not about saving those who are too big to

fail, but about more competition and TH-partnerships to achieve innovation synergy. European experience shows that a clusters success is affected both by its own ecosystem features (way of its formation, organizational model, type of governance or funding) and by a proper business environment (as according to Porters Diamond) 2. To support horizontal linkages and the emergence of cluster initiatives is becoming a new macroeconomic must for all types of economies, especially for catching- up systems. Through successful clusters the economies can steadily lift to higher VA stages of GVCs and thus reinforce their growth potential 3. Russia lacks proper institutional and business environment to create true innovation clusters. Some regional innovation enclaves (like Tomsk) do launch certain successful manufacture projects, but rather thanks to their intellectual capital than to their special status of a RIC. [email protected]

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