Short Story Unit CHARACTERS AND CONFLICT Elements of a Short Story Characters Protagonist: the main character Antagonist: the person or thing that opposes the main character, creating conflict Setting Time Hour, season, historical era Place General location, specific country, city, and any specific locations Conflict: a struggle or problem characters face External:
takes place between a character and an outside force (character, society, nature) Internal: struggle a character experiences between her own feelings, desires, or beliefs Plot Theme Genre and Structure Genre: classification of literary works that share certain elements Realistic Believable characters facing true to life
problems in a realistic setting Science Often Fiction set in the future in which actual or imagined science and technology play a central role Historical Story set in the past that combines fictional characters with historical figures or events Humorous Comical characters and situations intended to amuse
Parody An imitation of another story or writing style, intended to comment on or poke fun at the original Genre and Structure Structure: the way in which events of the plot unfold and the reader learns about characters and situations Can be shaped by genre Ex: Mystery stories intriguing problem and a protagonist who seeks to solve itlots of plot twists and turnslogical, but surprising resolution
Chronological Order: events of the story are told in sequence from beginning to end Flashbacks: interrupt the flow of chronological events to describe earlier events Provide insight into a characters past or motivations Parallel Plots: when author develops two distinct storylines, with two sets of characters, usually joining together into a single unified tale
Pacing: speed or rhythm of the writing Elements of Style Suspense: a feeling of anticipation that something risky or dangerous is about to happen Used to keep readers interest and make reader more interested and sympathetic to the protagonist Authors create suspense by using Details and descriptions
Onomatopoeia Unfamiliar settings Foreshadowing Irony Elements of Style Irony: an effect created when a writer sets up a contrast between readers or characters expectations and reality
May involve a difference between Appearance and reality Expectation and outcome Stated meaning and intended meaning Three types of Irony
Situational: an event directly contradicts expectation Verbal: a character says the opposite of what she means Dramatic: the reader knows something the character does NOT Paradox: a statement that seems contradictory but reveals some deeper truth IRONY OR PARADOX? I SEARCH EVERYWHERE FOR MY GLASSES, ONLY TO REALIZE IM WEARING THEM
SITUATIONAL IRONY SOMEONE KNOCKS MY BOOKS OUT OF MY HAND IN THE HALLWAY, AND I SAY, THANKS. VERBAL IRONY IRONY OR PARADOX? SOMEONE TELLS YOU THEY ARE A COMPULSIVE LIAR. PARADOX:
A LIAR WOULDNT TELL THE TRUTH IM NOBODY. PARADOX A man looked out of the window to see the storm intensify. He turned to his friend and said wonderful weather were having! VERBAL IRONY IRONY OR PARADOX? Deep down, you're really shallow.
PARADOX Being thirsty in the sea SITUATIONAL IRONY In Toy Story, human characters are not aware that the toys speak and move while the audience is aware DRAMATIC IRONY Elements of Style
Atmosphere: Refers to the emotions or feelings an author conveys through the descriptions of objects and setting Ex: JK Rowlings Harry Potter serieswhimsical and exciting It is an unspoken hunger we deflect with knives one avocado between us, cut neatly in half, twisted then separated from the large wooden pit. With the green fleshy boats in hand, we slice vertical strips from one end to the other. Vegetable planks. We smother the avocado with salsa, hot chiles at noon in the desert. We look at each other and smile, eating avocados with sharp silver blades, risking the blood of our tongues repeatedly. Here Terry creates a dangerous atmosphere where hazardous
atmosphere is created as she presents knives and avocados. In fact, when an author tries to establish atmosphere by using objects, these objects represent unspoken reality. Besides, appearance of two characters also adds to a sexually charged atmosphere. FORESHADOWING and FLASHBACK Foreshadowing: the use of details that hint at later events Not all foreshadowing is obvious. Frequently, future events are merely hinted at through dialogue, description, or the attitudes and reactions of the characters. Foreshadowing frequently serves two purposes. 1) It builds suspense by raising questions that encourage the reader to go on and find out more about the event that is being foreshadowed. 2)
Foreshadowing is also a means of making a narrative more believable by partially preparing the reader for events which are to follow. FLASHBACKS Flashback: a technique that involves a switch from present time of the narrative to a past time Come in the forms of Dreams Memories Sequences that interruptstories of the past told by one character or an interruption by the author Flashback
is useful for exposition, to fill in the reader about a character or place, or to explain the background to a conflict. FLASHBACKS How to find a Flashback in literature Look for a place where the writer breaks up the chronological order of the plot to tell about something that took place earlier. Look for time words such as years ago, in the past, and then: Examples I thought about what had happened earlier....
Images A from years ago flooded my brain.... memory from the distant past surged up..... FLASHBACKS How to find a Flashback in literature Look for dates, characters' ages, and words about youth or old age Examples When Carlita was nine, her father taught her to swim...... Before
I became the old man you see before you...... Look for time words such as now, today, and these days. Such phrases can indicate the stopping point of a flashback. Examples: Now I am a grownup..... These days I live more slowly than when I was in the army. IMAGERY AND CONFLICT Imagery: The use of vivid or figurative language to represent objects, actions, places, or ideas
To create imagery, authors use Sensory Details Sensory Details are any detail that draws on any of the five senses. Sight Visual Imagery Sound Auditory Imagery Taste Gustatory Imagery Touch Tactile Imagery
Smell Olfactory Imagery IMAGERY PRACTICE WHICH SENSE DOES THE FOLLOWING IMAGE APPEAL TO? And straightway like a bell Came low and clear The slow, sad murmur of the distant seas, Hearing What type of imagery is this? Auditory Imagery
IMAGERY PRACTICE WHICH SENSE DOES THE FOLLOWING IMAGE APPEAL TO? And bubbling sea-weeds as the waters go Swish to and fro SIGHT WHAT TYPE OF IMAGERY IS THIS? VISUAL IMAGERY IMAGERY PRACTICE
WHICH SENSE DOES THE FOLLOWING IMAGE APPEAL TO? Their long, cold tentacles of slimy grey. WHAT SENSE DOES THIS APPEAL TO? COLD AND SLIMY TOUCH GREY TENTACLES VISUAL WHAT
TYPES OF IMAGERY ARE THESE? TACTILE IMAGERY AND VISUAL IMAGERY CONFLICT Without conflict, there is no plot! Introduced Faced head-on during the climax Begins Is
during the rising action to work itself out during the falling action resolved during the resolution CONFLICT Internal Character vs Him- or Herself Struggle Usually takes place in characters own mind something to do with choice or overcoming emotions or mixed feelings
CONFLICT External Character vs Character Protagonist Character Usually Character Group vs antagonist vs Nature character is struggling to survive vs Society of characters fighting against society Character
fights against social traditions or rules CONFLICT OTHER TYPES OF CONFLICT Character vs Supernatural Gods, Character vs Fate Fight ghosts, monsters, spirits, aliens, etc.
for choice; fight against destiny Character vs Technology Computers, machines, etc. CONFLICT MAN V. ? Nature CONFLICT Man v. ? Charles
decided to break all the rules the day he decided to steal that car. He was immediately arrested and sent to jail to await his trial. He should have known better than to mess with the rules. Man V. Society CONFLICT Man V. ? I dont care who you talk to! screamed Sarah to West. I just wish I had never met you! Man v. Man CONFLICT Man
V. ? Tom found a dry spot to sit down in the dark and began to feel guilty over an argument he had had earlier in the day with his mother in which he had said, I hope I never see you again! Man v. Self
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