Unit 4 Sensors and Actuators Sections: 1. Sensors 2. Actuators 3. Analog-to-Digital Conversion 4. Digital-to-Analog Conversion 5. Input/Output Devices for Discrete Data Computer-Process Interface To implement process control, the computer must collect data from and transmit signals to the production process Components required to implement the interface: Sensors to measure continuous and discrete process variables Actuators to drive continuous and discrete process

parameters Devices for ADC and DAC I/O devices for discrete data Computer Process Control System Transformation Process Continuous and Discrete Parameters Actuators Actuators DAC DAC Output Devices

Continuous and Discrete Variables Sensors Sensors Computer Computer Controller Controller ADC ADC Input Devices Sensors

Stimulus (s) Physical Physical Medium Medium Temperature Sensing Sensing Element Element Resistance Signal (S) Conditioning

Conditioning Target Target Handling Handling Voltage Information Transducers Micro-sensors 10-6m Transfer Function S f (s )

where S = output signal; s = stimulus; and f(s) = functional relationship For binary sensors: S = 1 if s > 0 and S = 0 if s < 0. The ideal functional form for an analogue measuring device is a simple proportional relationship, such as: S C ms where C = output value at a stimulus value of zero and m = constant of proportionality (sensitivity) Example The output voltage of a particular thermocouple sensor is registered to be 42.3 mV at temperature 105C. It had previously been set to emit a zero voltage at 0C. Since an output/input relationship exists between the two temperatures, determine (1) the transfer function of the thermocouple, and (2) the temperature corresponding to a

voltage output of 15.8 mV. Solution S C ms 42.3 mV = 0 + m(105C) = m(105C) or m = 0.4028571429 S = 0.4 (s) 15.8 mV = 0.4 (s) 15.8 / 0.4 = s s = 39.22C Sensors A sensor is a transducer that converts a physical stimulus from one form into a more useful form to measure the stimulus

Two basic categories: 1. Analog Ultrasonic 2. Discrete (distance) Binary Digital (e.g., pulse counter) Light (light intensity) Sound (db pressure) Touch Other Sensors

Temperature RFID Barcode Proximity Vision Gyroscope Compass

Tilt/Acceleration Etc. Actuators Hardware devices that convert a controller command signal into a change in a physical parameter The change is usually mechanical (e.g., position or velocity) An actuator is also a transducer because it changes one type of physical quantity into some alternative form An actuator is usually activated by a low-level command signal, so an amplifier may be required to provide sufficient power to drive the actuator Actuators

Logical Signal Mechanism Mechanism Signal Signal Processing Processing && Amplification Amplification Electric Electric Hydraulic Hydraulic

Pneumatic Pneumatic Actuator Actuator Sensor Sensor Final Final Actuation Actuation Element Element Types of Actuators 1. Electrical actuators

Electric motors DC servomotors AC motors Stepper motors Solenoids 2. Hydraulic actuators Use hydraulic fluid to amplify the controller command signal 3. Pneumatic actuators Use compressed air as the driving force Stepper motor and Servomotor Servo Motor

Torque-Speed Curve of a DC Servomotor and Load Torque Plot Torque, T Load Stepper AC Servo DC Servo Operating Points Speed, NXT Mindstorms - Servo Motor

Motor Controllers The POSYS 3004 (Designed & Made in Germany) is a PC/104 form factor board dedicated to high performance motion control applications with extensive interpolation functionality. The POSYS 3004 is designed to control up to 4 axes of servo and stepper motors and provides hardware linear, circular, Bit Pattern and continuous interpolation which allow to perform the most complex motion profiles. Update rates per axis do not exist as each axis runs in absolute real-time mode simultaneously which makes these boards to one of the best performing motion controllers for up to 4 axes in the market. Stepper Motors Step angle is given by: : 360 ns

where ns is the number of steps for the stepper motor (integer) Total angle through which the motor rotates (Am) is given by: Am n p where np = number of pulses received by the motor. Angular velocity is given by: Speed of rotation is given by: N 2f p ns

60 f p ns where fp = pulse frequency Example A stepper motor has a step angle = 3.6. (1) How many pulses are required for the motor to rotate through ten complete revolutions? (2) What pulse frequency is required for the motor to rotate at a speed of 100 rev/min? Solution 360 ns

Am n p N 60 f p ns (1) 3.6 = 360 / ns; 3.6 (ns) = 360; ns = 360 / 3.6 = 100 step angles (2) Ten complete revolutions: 10(360) = 3600 = Am Therefore np = 3600 / 3.6 = 1000 pulses Where N = 100 rev/min: 100 = 60 fp / 100 10,000 = 60 fp fp = 10,000 / 60 = 166.667 = 167 Hz

Analog-to-Digital Conversion Sampling converts the continuous signal into a series of discrete analog signals at periodic intervals Quantization each discrete analog is converted into one of a finite number of (previously defined) discrete amplitude levels Encoding discrete amplitude levels are converted into digital code Variable Analogue Signal 1001 1101

0101 Time Discrete Variables Hardware Devices in Analog-to-Digital Conversion Transformation Process Continuous Variable Multiplexer

Amplifer Digital Digital Computer Computer Analog Analog Digital Digital Converter Converter Sensors Sensors && Transducer

Transducer Signal Conditioner Other Signals Features of an ADC Sampling rate rate at which continuous analog signal is polled e.g. 1000 samples/sec Quantization divide analog signal into discrete levels Resolution depends on number of quantization levels Conversion time how long it takes to convert the sampled signal to digital code Conversion method means by which analog signal is encoded into digital equivalent Example Successive approximation method

Successive Approximation Method A series of trial voltages are successively compared to the input signal whose value is unknown Number of trial voltages = number of bits used to encode the signal First trial voltage is 1/2 the full scale range of the ADC If the remainder of the input voltage exceeds the trial voltage, then a bit value of 1 is entered, if less than trial voltage then a bit value of zero is entered The successive bit values, multiplied by their respective trial voltages and added, becomes the encoded value of the input signal Example Analogue signal is 6.8 volts. Encode, using SAM, the signal for a 6 bit

register with a full scale range of 10 volts. Resolution N 2 n Quantisation levels is defined as: q where Nq = quantisation levels; and n is the number of bits. Resolution is defined as: R ADC L L n Nq 1 2 1

where RADC is the resolution of the ADC; L is the full-scale range of the ADC Quantisation generates an error, because the digitised signal is only sampled from the original analogue signal. The maximum possible error occurs when the true value of the analogue signal is on the borderline between two adjacent quantisation levels, in which case the error is half the quantisation-level spacing; this gives us the following for quantisation error (Quanerr): 1 Quanerr R ADC 2 where RADC is the resolution of the ADC. Example Using an analogue-to-digital converter, a continuous

voltage signal is to be converted into its digital counterpart. The maximum voltage range is 25 V. The ADC has a 16bit capacity, and full scale range of 60 V. Determine (1) number of quantization levels, (2) resolution, (3) the spacing of each quantisation level, and the quantisation error for this ADC. Solution N q 2 R ADC n L L n

Nq 1 2 1 1 Quanerr R ADC 2 (1) Number of quantization levels: = 216 = 65,536 (2) Resolution: RADC = 60 / 65,536 -1 = 0.0009155 volts (3) Quantisation error: = (0.0009155)/2 = 0.00045778 volts Digital-to-Analog Conversion Convert digital values into continuous analogue signal Decoding digital value to an analogue value at discrete

moments in time based on value within register E0 Eref 0.5B1 0.25B2 2 n 1 Bn Where E0 is output voltage; Eref is reference voltage; Bn is status of successive bits in the binary register

Data Holding that changes series of discrete analogue signals into one continuous signal Example A DAC has a reference voltage of 100 V and has 6-bit precision. Three successive sampling instances 0.5 sec apart have the following data in the data register: Output Values: Instant 1 2 3 Binary Data

101000 101010 101101 E01 = 100{0.5(1)+0.25(0)+0.125(1)+0.0625(0)+0.03125(0)+0.015625(0)} E01 = 62.50V E02 = 100{0.5(1)+0.25(0)+0.125(1)+0.0625(0)+0.03125(0)+0.015625(0)} E02 = 65.63V E03 = 100{0.5(1)+0.25(0)+0.125(1)+0.0625(0)+0.03125(0)+0.015625(0)} E03 = 70.31V Input/Output Devices Binary data: Contact input interface input data to computer Contact output interface output data from computer Discrete data other than binary:

Contact input interface input data to computer Contact output interface output data from computer Pulse data: Pulse counters - input data to computer Pulse generators - output data from computer