Section A Briefing Presentation Final

Section A Briefing Presentation Final

Cognitive Psychology Revision Lesson Legal or Illegal Questions? Task: If its not on the specification, it will NOT be asked. Look at the specification on your handout and then decide if the 10 questions below are legal or illegal questions Question 1. Outline two strengths of the multi-store model (4 marks) 2. Outline & evaluate research into how misleading information affects the accuracy of EWT(12) 3. Outline the findings of dual task studies? (2) 4. Outline what Loftus & Palmers (1979) study showed? (4) 3. Outline was is meant by encoding in memory research? (1) 6. Identify a difference in long term and short term memory (2) 7. Outline and evaluate techniques used to improve the accuracy of EWT (12) 8. Outline the main functions of the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad (2) Legal/Illegal Question?

Question 1. Outline two strengths of the multi-store model (4 marks) Legal/Illegal Question? Legal 2. Outline & evaluate research into how misleading information affects the accuracy Legal of EWT(12) 3. Outline the findings of dual task studies? (2) Illegal 4. Outline what Loftus & Palmers (1979) study showed? (4) Illegal 3. Outline was is meant by encoding in memory research? (1) Legal

6. Identify a difference in long term and short term memory (2) Legal 7. Outline and evaluate techniques used to improve the accuracy of EWT (12) Legal 8. Outline the main functions of the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial Legal sketchpad (2) Psychological Language Its important to understand the language that AQA uses. Consider the following two questions: What is the difference between these two questions? How would you answer both of these questions? Outline how one research study has investigated the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (EWT). Outline what researchers have found in relation to the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (EWT).

Although these questions are similar, what you include in your answers is very different. How = method What = results Psychological Language Studies & Theories Question: What does AQA mean when they say research? Studies & Theories! Question: How do you evaluate studies? What key terms might you use? Ecological validity Researcher bias These are all methodological issues, Social desirability which can be used to evaluate studies. Demand characteristics Sampling issues Psychological Language Evaluating Theories Question: How do you evaluate theories (i.e. the Multi-Store Model of Memory)?

Bring in a study that supports the theory? The theory is supported by study Further evaluation However, we should be cautious when using this study to support the theory because there are problems with the study. For example Psychological Language Finally Dont use Prove Nothing is ever proven in psychology! Instead say: This suggests This supports However, there are problems with the study There may have been demand characteristics/researcher bias This reduces the chances of demand characteristics/researcher bias Flash Cards - Revision

Learn your key theories and studies The Multi-Store Model Task 1: Complete the diagram of the Multi-Store Model of Memory. Add labels to the components (boxes) and processes (arrows). 3 Minutes The Multi-Store Model The Answers Rehearsal Retrieval Information Sensory Memory (SM) Attention

Long Term Memory (LTM) Short Term Memory (STM) Transfer Forgetting Capacity, Duration and Coding Question: What is meant by the following terms? Capacity Space - The amount of information that can be stored. Duration Time - How long the information

can be stored for. Coding Format The way in which information is changed and stored. The Multi-Store Model Task 2: Complete the table on your handout, detailing the capacity, duration and coding for sensory memory, STM and LTM. If possible, also write the name of any researchers that support these ideas. SENSORY MEMORY CAPACITY DURATION 3 Minutes CODING SHORT-TERM

MEMORY LONG-TERM MEMORY The Multi-Store Model SENSORY MEMORY SHORT-TERM MEMORY LONG-TERM MEMORY CAPACITY Very large Limited (7+/-2 chunks of information) Miller (1956)

Unlimited DURATION Very limited (1-2 seconds) Limited (20 seconds) Peterson & Peterson (1959) Lifetime/Years Bahrick et al., (1975) CODING Raw/Unprocessed information (From ALL 5 Senses)

Acoustic (Sound) Semantic (Meaning) The Multi-Store Model SENSORY MEMORY SHORT-TERM MEMORY LONG-TERM MEMORY CAPACITY Very large Limited (7+/-2 chunks of information) Miller (1956)

Unlimited DURATION Very limited (1-2 seconds) Limited (20 seconds) Peterson & Peterson (1959) Lifetime/Years Bahrick et al., (1975) CODING Raw/Unprocessed information (From ALL 5 Senses) Acoustic (Sound)

Semantic (Meaning) SM : Capacity: Very large Duration: Very limited period (1-2 secs) Encoding: Raw/Unprocessed (all 5 senses) LTM Capacity: Unlimited Duration: Lifetime/Years Encoding: Semantic (Meaning) Rehearsal Retrieval Information Sensory Memory (SM)

Attention Long Term Memory (LTM) Short Term Memory (STM) Transfer STM : Forgetting Capacity: Limited (about 7+- 2) Duration: Very limited (20 secs) Encoding: Acoustic (sound) Evaluating the MSM Task 3: Using the key information below, write three evaluation points for the Multi-Store Model. Hint: Are the following points, strengths or weaknesses of the model? Clive Wearing

Brain Scans Research Evidence Peterson & Peterson (1959) Bahrick (1975) Miller (1956) The Working Memory Model Task 4: Complete the diagram of the Working Memory Model. Then complete the table, outlining the different components of the model. 3 Minutes The Central Executive Phonological Loop

Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Inner Scribe Articulatory Control System Episodic Buffer Phonological Store Visual Cache Central Executive The Phonological Loop The boss of the Articulatory Control

WMM; Process (Inner Voice) Controls attention Sub vocal repetition and directs of itemsv in the information to the phonological store. two slave systems; Limited capacity. The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad The Inner Eye of It integrates (binds the WMM; together) information from Stores visual and the LTM and other spatial information; components.

v Manipulates v mental images; Phonological Store Limited capacity. (Inner Ear) Stores acoustic items (speech based sounds) for short periods ofvtime. Limited capacity. Episodic Buffer Central Executive The Phonological Loop

The boss of the Articulatory Control WMM; Process (Inner Voice) Controls attention Sub vocal repetition and directs of items in the information to the phonological store. two slave systems; Limited capacity. The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad The Inner Eye of It integrates (binds the WMM; together) information from Stores visual and the LTM and other

spatial information; components. Manipulates mental images; Phonological Store Limited capacity. (Inner Ear) Stores acoustic items (speech based sounds) for short periods of time. Limited capacity. Episodic Buffer Evaluating the WMM Task 5: Using the key information below, write three evaluation points for the Working Memory Model. Hint: Are the following points, strengths or weaknesses of the model? Case Study - KF

Dual Task Studies Only STM? What about Sensory Memory and LTM? Eyewitness Testimony Anxiety, Misleading Information & Post Event Discussion Eye Witness Testimony Task 6: Below are the key points from the method and result sections for the following studies: Loftus (1979) / Johnson & Scott (1976) Loftus & Palmer (1974) Gabbert et al. (2003) Use these key points to complete your notes on these studies, using the tables below. Participants

waited in a reception area and were exposed to: 1 High anxiety condition man with knife runs past. 2 Low anxiety condition man with pen walks past. The sample consisted of 45 American students. The sample consisted of 60 students from Aberdeen and 60 older adults. Each participant watched 7 videos of car traffic accidents. They

were then asked misleading questions, using different verbs, e.g. smashed, hit, bumped, contacted or These results suggest that the accuracy of EWT is affected by misleading questions. Participants had to identify the man from 50 photos. The verb smashed generated an average speed of 40.8 mph. Loftus (1979) / Johnson & Scott (1976) Method:

Participants waited in a reception area and were exposed to: 1 High anxiety condition man with knife runs past. 2 Low anxiety condition man with pen walks past. Participants had to identify the man from 50 photos. Results: Those in the pen condition were correct 49% of the time. Those in the knife condition were correct 33% of the time. Johnson & Scott concluded that the knife created higher levels of anxiety, so that the witnesses focused their attention on the weapon and not the face of the man (weapon focus effect), therefore reducing the accuracy of their EWT.

Loftus (1979) / Johnson & Scott (1976) Method: Participants waited in a reception area and were exposed to: 1 High anxiety condition man with knife runs past. 2 Low anxiety condition man with pen walks past. Participants had to identify the man from 50 photos. Results: Those in the pen condition were correct 49% of the time. Those in the knife condition were correct 33% of the time. Johnson & Scott concluded that the knife created higher levels of anxiety, so that the witnesses focused their attention on the weapon and not the face of the man (weapon focus effect), therefore reducing the accuracy

of their EWT. Loftus & Palmer (1974) Method: The sample consisted of 45 American students. Each participant watched 7 videos of car traffic accidents. They were then asked misleading questions, using different verbs, e.g. smashed, hit, bumped, contacted or collided. Results: The verb smashed generated an average speed of 40.8 mph. The verb contacted generated an average speed of 31.8 mph. These results suggest that the accuracy of EWT is affected by misleading questions.

Loftus & Palmer (1974) Method: The sample consisted of 45 American students. Each participant watched 7 videos of car traffic accidents. They were then asked misleading questions, using different verbs, e.g. smashed, hit, bumped, contacted or collided. Results: The verb smashed generated an average speed of 40.8 mph. The verb contacted generated an average speed of 31.8 mph. These results suggest that the accuracy of EWT is affected by misleading questions. Gabbert et al. (2003) Method:

The sample consisted of 60 students from Aberdeen and 60 older adults. Each participant watched a video of girl stealing money from a wallet, but from different perspectives. Participants then discussed video before answering a series of questions. Results: 71% of witnesses recalled information they had not seen. 60% said they saw the girl stealing money, when they hadnt. These results suggest that the accuracy of EWT is affected by post-event discussion. Gabbert et al. (2003) Method: The sample consisted of 60 students from Aberdeen and 60 older adults. Each participant watched a video of girl

stealing money from a wallet, but from different perspectives. Participants then discussed video before answering a series of questions. Results: 71% of witnesses recalled information they had not seen. 60% said they saw the girl stealing money, when they hadnt. These results suggest that the accuracy of EWT is affected by post-event discussion. Evaluating EWT Research Laboratory studies often lack ecological validity. Why? EWT research often lacks population validity Gabbert et al. UK sample Why is this an issue? Loftus & Palmer US student sample Why is this an issue? However, laboratory research = highly controlled high level of replication Why is this a strength? Ethical guidelines Protection from harm

Loftus Exposed to a man with a knife Why is this an issue? Lofts & Palmer Watched a video Why is this an issue? Task 7: Add three of these evaluation points to your table, ensuring that you answer the underlined question. Evaluation (AO3) The Cognitive Interview Question: What do each of the following initials mean in relation to the Cognitive Interview? CR Context Reinstatement - mentally reinstate the context of the target event. For example, recalling the scene, the weather, thoughts, and feelings; RE Report Everything - report every detail you can, even those which seem trivial;

CP Change Perspective - report the event from a different perspective (put yourself in someone elses shoes) RO Reverse Order - report the event in the reverse order, from the endpoint to the start. Geiselman (1985) & Fisher (1989) Task 8: Read the two summaries of Geiselman (1985) and Fisher (1989) and then evaluate these two pieces of research, using the points on the last page of your handout to guide you. 15 Minutes Evaluation AO3 Lacks Ecological Validity Lacks Population Validity

Highly Controlled = Replication One weakness of Geiselman A second weakness of However, Geiselmans (1985) (1985) is that his study lacks Geiselman (1985) is that his study was highly controlled. ecological validity. study lacks population validity. His study was conducted in a In his study participants watched His study examined 89 students laboratory and therefore there a video of a simulated crime on and therefore his sample is would have been a high degree a video screen and witnessed biased. of control for extraneous the incident from start to finish, variables. which is unlike what would This matters because we are happen in the real world. unable to generalise the results This matters because it allows of this study to other psychologist to easily replicate This matters because the results populations and we do not know this study, to see if we would get do not apply to what happens in if

non-student populations the same results with different the real world and therefore we would respond to the cognitive populations and it means that do not know if people involved interview in the same way. we can be more certain that our in real crime (who would have a IV affected out DV. stronger emotional connect) would respond to the cognitive interview in the same way. Evaluation AO3 Lacks Ecological Validity Lacks Population Validity Highly Controlled = Replication One weakness of Geiselman A second weakness of However, Geiselmans (1985) (1985) is that his study lacks Geiselman (1985) is that his study was highly controlled. ecological validity.

study lacks population validity. His study was conducted in a In his study participants watched His study examined 89 students laboratory and therefore there a video of a simulated crime on and therefore his sample is would have been a high degree a video screen and witnessed biased. of control for extraneous the incident from start to finish, variables. which is unlike what would This matters because we are happen in the real world. unable to generalise the results This matters because it allows of this study to other psychologist to easily replicate This matters because the results populations and we do not know this study, to see if we would get do not apply to what happens in if non-student populations the same results with different the real world and therefore we would respond to the cognitive populations and it means that do not know if people involved interview in the same way. we can be more certain that our in real crime (who would have a IV affected out DV.

stronger emotional connect) would respond to the cognitive interview in the same way. Any questions? email: [email protected] www.tutor2u.net

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