# Section 1: Nature of Science - Mrs. Glazebrook - Home

Section 1: Nature of Science 1. Bobby thinks that eating fish for breakfast will make people smarter. He gets 10 of his friends and divides them into 2 groups. Group A eats fish for breakfast everyday for a week. Group B eats cereal for breakfast every day for a week. Both groups are given an I.Q. test at the end of the week. A. What is Bobbys hypothesis? If you eat fish for breakfast, then you will get smarter.

1. Bobby thinks that eating fish for breakfast will make people smarter. He gets 10 of his friends and divides them into 2 groups. Group A eats fish for breakfast everyday for a week. Group B eats cereal for breakfast every day for a week. Both groups are given an I.Q. test at the end of the week. B. What is the independent variable? Breakfast foods (fish or cereal) 1. Bobby thinks that eating fish for breakfast will make

people smarter. He gets 10 of his friends and divides them into 2 groups. Group A eats fish for breakfast everyday for a week. Group B eats cereal for breakfast every day for a week. Both groups are given an I.Q. test at the end of the week. C. What is the dependent variable? The I.Q. test results 1. Bobby thinks that eating fish for breakfast will make people smarter. He gets 10 of his friends and divides them into 2 groups. Group A eats fish for breakfast

everyday for a week. Group B eats cereal for breakfast every day for a week. Both groups are given an I.Q. test at the end of the week. D. Which group is the control group? The group of friends eating the cereal (they are not changing anything they will have KNOWN results) 1. Bobby thinks that eating fish for breakfast will make people smarter. He gets 10 of his friends and divides them into 2 groups. Group A eats fish for breakfast

everyday for a week. Group B eats cereal for breakfast every day for a week. Both groups are given an I.Q. test at the end of the week. E. What are 2 things that are the same for both groups? They both eat breakfast for one week. They are both given an I.Q. test after the same amount of time. 2. Define BIOLOGY. Break it down:

Bio = ? Bio = LIFE Ology = ? Ology = THE STUDY OF Therefore, Bio + ology = the study of life 3. List the properties of life and describe them.

Metabolism Response to environment Homeostasis Cells Reproduction Evolution Growth and development

Section 2: Biochemistry 4. Draw a water molecule. Label the hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Label the positive and negative charges. 5. Why is a water molecule considered polar? Polar = an unequal distribution of the negatively charged electrons in a molecule. Water is polar because it has a slightly negative charge near the Oxygen atoms and a slightly

positive charge near the Hydrogen atom. 6. Complete the chart below. Compound Monomer(s) (Building blocks) Function(s) Examples:

Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Store energy Sugars and starches Lipids Fatty Acid

Stores energy Fats, Oils, Waxes, and Steroids Proteins Amino Acid Nucleic Acids Nucleotide

Makes up the cell membrane Involved in almost all cell activities Stores genetic information Meats, Cheese, and Pasta DNA or RNA

7. All organic compounds contain which element? CARBON 8. Define the following terms. How are they important to living things? A. Cohesion The sticking together of particles of the same substance

This is important because cells need to stick to one another so that an organism can be one whole piece. WATER IS COHESIVE 8. Define the following terms. How are they important to living things? B. Adhesion The sticking together of particles of the DIFFERENT substances This is important because this is how water is transported

through plants and trees. WATER IS NOT ONLY COHESIVE, but it is ALSO ADHESIVE. 8. Define the following terms. How are they important to living things? C. Solvent A substance that is able to dissolve other substances. Water is the universal solvent; it can dissolve nearly anything!

8. Define the following terms. How are they important to living things? D. High Specific Heat The amount of heat required to raise the temperature by one degree is high This means that the temperature of water will stay relatively the same 9. Janet mixes purple Kool-Aid powder and

water to make grape Kool-Aid. A. What is the solvent? The water *Solvent something that dissolves something else 9. Janet mixes purple Kool-Aid powder and water to make grape Kool-Aid. B. What is the solute? The Kool-Aid Powder *Solute something that gets dissolved

9. Janet mixes purple Kool-Aid powder and water to make grape Kool-Aid. C. What is the solution? The grape Kool-Aid *Solution = solute + solvent 10. What is the function of an enzyme? An enzymes function is to speed up a chemical reaction.

11. Draw and label an enzyme, substrate, and active site. 12. Define substrate. Substrate = the substance that the enzyme attaches to or acts on (also known as the reactant) 13a. How are enzymes affected by pH? Ph and temperature can denature (change

shape). 13b. How are enzymes affected by temperature? Enzymes have an optimum (or best) temperature. Changing the temperature of an enzyme can cause it to become denatured (change shape). 13c. How are enzymes affected by enzyme concentration? The more enzyme that you have, the faster

the reaction will take place Section 3: Cell Structure and Function 14. Make a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 15. Describe the 3 parts of the cell theory. A. All living things are made up of cells. B. All living cells come from preexisting cells.

C. The cell is the basic unit of life 16. Complete the chart below: Cell Organelle Functions Cell Wall Protects plant cell Chloroplasts

Site of photosynthesis Plants Cytoplasm The liquid that fills the cell Both Endoplasmic Reticulum

Packages Proteins Both Golgi Bodies Sends proteins to the appropriate locations Breaks down large molecules Both

Powerhouse of the cell; creates energy Found within the nucleus Both Nucleus Brain of cell Both

Plasma Membrane Controls what molecules are allows in and out of the cell. Builds proteins Stores food and water Both Lysosomes Mitochondria

Nucleolus Ribosomes Vacuoles Found in Plant Cells, Animal Cells, or Both Plants Both Both

Both Both 17. Label the cells nucleus, nuclear envelope, nucleolus, mitochondria, cytoplasm, cell membrane, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum, and golgi apparatus. Section 4: Cell Transport 18. Define the words, then draw a picture to

represent each one. ord Definition Diffusion The movement of molecules from a HIGH concentration to a LOW concentration

Osmosis The diffusion of WATER molecules Facilitated Diffusion The movement of molecules with no energy Aka passive transport

Drawing 18. Define the words, then draw a picture to represent each one. Word Endocytosis Exocytosis Definition Molecules move into

cell Molecules move out of cell Drawing 18. Define the words, then draw a picture to represent each one. Word Definition

Hypertonic Cell shrinks Hypotonic Cell swells Isotonic Cell stays the same size

Drawing 19. Draw the structure of a cell membrane. Label the lipid, phosphate, protein, and carbohydrate chain. Section 5: Cell Energy 20. Write the equation for cellular respiration.

21. What is the purpose of cellular respiration? To create Energy from Glucose! 22. What process do organisms use to make energy if they do not have oxygen? FERMENTATION (alcohol or lactic acid) 23. What is the difference between

aerobic and anaerobic? Aerobic requires OXYGEN, Anaerobic DOES NOT require OXYGEN. 24. In what part of the cell does cellular respiration occur? THE MITOCHONDRIA 25. Write the equation for

photosynthesis. 26. What is the purpose of photosynthesis? To create Chemical Energy (Glucose) from Light Energy (the sun) 27. In what part of the cell does photosynthesis occur? The Chloroplast

Section 6: Mitosis and Meiosis 28. Draw the cell cycle The phase where the cell spends most of its time increasing in size so that it can prepare to divide. 29. What are the 3 parts of Interphase and what happens in each one? G1 Cell grows

S Replication of DNA G2 Cell prepares to divide 30. Define Cytokinesis. Division of the cytoplasm to form two cells 31. Write the phases of mitosis in order. Draw each phase 32. Fill in the chart comparing mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis Meiosis What is the purpose? To create new BODY cells To create new SEX cells (Gametes)

How many divisions are there? 1 2 How many daughter cells are formed? 2

4 Are the daughter cells identical to each other? Yes No Are the daughter cells haploid or diploid?

Diploid Haploid 33. Define haploid and diploid. A. Haploid 1 set of chromosomes (half the normal number - gametes) B. Diploid 2 sets of chromosomes (one from the mother and one from the father body cells) Section 7: DNA and RNA

34. What is the shape of DNA? Draw it. DNA is a double helix 35. Where is DNA located? Inside of the NUCLEUS 36. Describe 3 differences between DNA and RNA. DNA has the base Thymine (T) while RNA has

the base Uracil (U). DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded. DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose and RNA contains the sugar ribose. 37. What are the 3 types of RNA and what do they do? Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm Transfer RNA (tRNA) Brings amino acids to the ribosomes to make proteins Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Directs the translation

of mRNA into proteins and is found in the cytoplasm 38. Complete the chart by giving the complementary DNA strand, the mRNA strand, and the amino acids. Complementary Strand ATG TTT

GGT AAC GCT TTA TCT ACT TAA

DNA TAC AAA CCA TTG CGA AAT

AGA TGA ATT mRNA AUG UUU GGU

AAC GCU UUA UCU ACU UAA Amino Acid Met Phe

Gly Asp Ala Stop Leu Ser

Thr 39. Define A. Transcription a strand of DNA is copied into a molecule of mRNA B. Translation a strand of mRNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids to make a protein Section 8: Mendelian Genetics 40. Define Heredity

The passing of traits from parents to offspring 41. In pea plants green peas (G) are dominant to yellow peas (g). Write the genotype for the following. A. Homozygous dominant: GG B. Homozygous recessive: gg C. Heterozygous: Gg Remember:

Hetero = diff erent Homo = sam e 41. In pea plants green peas (G) are dominant to yellow peas (g). Write the phenotype for the following. D. Gg: Green peas E. Homozygous recessive: Yellow peas F. Homozygous dominant: Green peas

Remember: Phenotype = physical appearance 42. Draw a punnett square showing a cross between a homozygous dominant pea and a heterozygous pea. Homozygous dominant = GG Heterozygous = Gg G

G G GG GG g Gg

Gg 43a. Define the following terms and give an example of each one. Incomplete dominance traits blend and new phenotype created Neither the red or white are completely dominant here 43b. Define the following terms and give an

example of each one. Codominance two alleles are shown at the same time in the heterozygous type Notice that the brown AND the white appear at the SAME time 43c. Define the following terms and give an example of each one. Multiple Alleles an allele with more than two forms (ex. Blood types)

43d. Define the following terms and give an example of each one. Sex-linked trait a trait located on a sex chromosome 44. What is genetic engineering? Manipulating an organisms genes using technology 45. Define cloning.

Process used to create genetically identical organisms from sex cells Section 9: Evolution and Classification 46. Define evolution. A theory developed by Charles Darwin that organisms change over time.

47. Darwins theory Theory of natural selection has 4 parts: 1. 2. 3. 4. Variation in a population Survival of the fittest Overproduction of offspring Competition for limited resources

48. Give an example that explains natural selection. Giraffes. Giraffes that had the longest necks survived, since they could reach the food better and that trait was passed onto their offspring. 47. List and describe the 4 parts of Darwins Theory. 1. More individuals are produced each generation than can survive. 2. Variation exists among individuals and

variation is heritable 3. Individuals with heritable traits better suited to the environment will survive. 4. When reproductive isolation occurs new species will form. 49. Define and give an example of each. A. Variation differences among genes A. (example: some people have brown eyes and some people have blue eyes. There is VARIATION among eye color)

B. Adaptation a trait that allows an organism to be better suited to its environment A. (example: polar bears have thick fur to help them survive the cold temperatures. Their thick fur is an ADAPTATION) 50. What was the early Earth like? The early Earth was very volatile. There were many earthquakes and volcanoes. 51. List the 8 levels of taxonomy in order.

Class Order Family Genus Species (Smallest) Remember: Dear King Phillip Came Over For Good Salsa 52. Use the dichotomous key to identify the

organisms to the right. 1. Has pointed ears .................................... go to 3 Has rounded ears ....................................go to 2 2. Has no tail ............................................. Kentuckyus Has tail .................................................. Dakotus 3. Ears point upward .................................... go to 5 Ears point downward ..............go to 4 4. Engages in waving behavior ............................. Dallus Has hairy tufts on ears ..........................................Californius Dakotus

5. Engages in waving behavior ............................. WalaWala Does not engage in waving behavior ....................go to 6 6. Has hair on head ............................................. Beverlus Has no hair on head (may have ear tufts) .......go to 7 7. Has a tail ............................................. Yorkio Has no tail, aggressive ............................ Rajus Beverlus 53. List the 3 domains and what kingdoms belong to each domain. 1. Bacteria (Eubacteria)

2. Archae (Archaebacteria) 3. Eukarya (Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia) 54. Complete the chart. Kingdom Cell Type: Prokaryote or Eukaryote Cell Arrangement:

Unicellular or Multicellular Nutrition: Autotroph or Heterotroph Cell Wall: Present or Absent Example

Eubacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular Autotroph & Heterotroph Present Staph,

Gonorrehea Archaebacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular Autotroph & Heterotroph Present

Halophiles, Thermophiles Protista Eukaryotic Unicellular and Multicellular Autotroph &

Heterotroph Present made of cellulose Paramecium, Euglena, Amoeba Fungi

Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophic Deocmposers Present made of chitin Mushrooms,

Yeast, Mold Plantae Eukaryotic Multicellular Autotrophs Present made of

cellular Shrubs, Trees, Flowers Animalia Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophs

Absent Invertebrates and Vertebrates Section 10: Ecology 55. Define A. Biotic living factors in an area B. Abiotic non-living factors in an area

C. Biodiversity the variety of life in an ecosystem D. Limiting Factor a resource that limits the population growth E. Carrying Capacity the maximum number of individuals a population can support 56. What is the difference between primary and secondary succession? Primary succession a community begins where there was never a community before Secondary succession a community is

destroyed leaving only soil behind and a new community begins 57 continued A. What are the producers? Grass and Corn B. What trophic level is the grass on? - The first The snake? The 3rd The grasshopper? The second C. How much energy is passed from one trophic level to the next? 10% D. What provides most of Earths energy? The sun

58. Draw a graph for exponential growth. Are there any limiting factors in this graph? There are NO limiting factors in this graph. 59. Draw a graph for logistic growth. Label carrying capacity. Are there any limiting factors in this graph?

Limiting Factors DO exist in this graph. 60. What is a climax community? An ecological community that is well established and is the end result of a succession. 61. What is the difference between an

autotroph and heterotroph? An autotroph makes their own food and a heterotroph must consume another organism in order to get energy 62. Describe the following relationships. A. Mutualism relationship where both organisms BENEFIT B. Commensalism relationship where one organism benefits and the other is

unaffected C. Parasitism relationship where one organism benefits and the other is harmed 63. Fill in the chart about the biomes. Biome Desert Climate Hot and dry Plants

none to cacti, grasses few trees Animals rodents, snakes, lizards, tortoises, insects, and some birds. Taiga/Boreal (Coniferous) very cold winters,

cool summers,; Temperate Forest (Deciduous) relatively mild summers and cold winters, hot all year round, mostly spruce, fir, and other

evergreens hardwoods such as oaks, beeches, hickories, maples greatest diversity of any biome; vines, orchids, ferns, and a wide variety of trees grasses, wildflowers, mosses, small shrubs rodents, snowshoe

hares, lynx, sables,, caribou, bears, wolves, deer, bears, and a wide variety of small mammals, birds, more species of insects, reptiles, and amphibians Tropical Rain Forest Tundra

very cold, harsh, and long winters; short and cool summers; permafrost musk oxen, migrating caribuou, arctic foxes, weasels, snowshoe

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