SCOTTISH ENGLISH, SCOTTISH ACCENTS What Do We Mean By Scottish English? Scottish English NOT just Gaelic ! HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE First, there was Gaelic, the ancient language of the Celts; 7th C: Anglo-Saxons: occupied Edinburgh: Germanic L 1500: geographic shift, and Gaelic became mostly confined to the Highlands; whilst in the Lowlands, a different language began to develop distinct from Gaelic Scots! Scots: NOT still Scottish English In the Lowlands, Scots mixed with Standard English (both mutually influencing each other), and in the 18th century, Scottish English was born! Scottish English: an accent that is the perfect combination of Gaelic roots, Scots phonology and an English lexicon. Linguistically: bcs Scottish English only developed three centuries ago, this accent one of the newest accents in the British Isles! History of Scottish Language What To Look Out For With Scottish English? Having come from the Celts, Scottish shares similarities with Welsh English; for example, some trilling /r/: apparent in both accents. Phonology: Gaelic/Celtic influence: the /o/ sound in Standard
English is often pronounced with an /ae/ sound instead . In Gaelic, this vowel combination /ae/: is very common. e.g., cannot in Standard English. In Scottish English, the /t/ is swallowed , and / o/ changes to /ae/, becoming cannae. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF SCOTTISH ENGLISH ACCENTS glottal stop  ( in Scottish English /t/ seems to be swallowed by the glottal stop) e.g., glottal would become gloal In spelling: I cannae do it. Not only does the / t/ at the end of cannot get swallowed, but it also has that distinctive glottal stop after the vowel sound, so you dont hear /t/ in the sentence at all! More information about Scottish English
Scottish English includes varieties of English spoken in Scotland. Main, formal variety : Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English (SSE) Scottish Standard English defined as : "the characteristic speech of the professional class [in Scotland] and the accepted norm in schools". Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with focused broad Scots at the other. Scottish English: influenced to varying degrees by Scots. Scots speakers separate Scots and Scottish English as different registers depending on social circumstances. Some speakers code switch clearly from one to the other while others style shift in a less predictable and more fluctuating manner. Generally , shift to Scottish English in formal situations or with individuals of a higher social status Other characteristic features of Scottish English Language In addition to distinct pronunciation, grammar and expressions, Scottish English has distinctive vocabulary, particularly pertaining
to Scottish institutions such as the Church of Scotland, local government and the education and legal systems Brief history of Scottish English Scottish English resulted from language contact between Scots and the Standard English of England after the 17th century. shifts to English usage by Scots-speakers resulted in many phonological compromises and lexical transfers, often mistaken for mergers by linguists also influenced by interdialectal forms, hypercorrections and spelling pronunciations. Landmarks in the history of Scottish L Influence of the English of England upon Scots?? the 16th-century Reformation and the introduction of printing.[Printing arrived in London in 1476, but the first printing press was not introduced to Scotland for another 30 years]. Texts such as the Geneva Bible, printed in English, were widely distributed in Scotland in order to spread Protestant doctrine. King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603. Since England was the larger and richer of the two Kingdoms, James I (administrators, literate people too ) moved to London in England.
McClure attributes "the sudden and total eclipse of Scots as a literary language to Scottish movement from Scotland to England/ London. The continuing absence of a Scots translation of the Bible meant that the translation of King James into English was used in worship in both countries. The Acts of Union 1707 amalgamated Scottish and English Parliaments. However the church, educational and legal structures remained separate. This leads to important professional distinctions in the definitions of some words and terms. There are therefore words with precise definitions in Scottish English which have either no place in English or have a different definition. Speech features of Scottish English speech of middle classes in Scotland: conforms to grammatical norms of the written standard, particularly in situations that are regarded as formal. Highland English: different from the variety spoken in Lowlands: it is more phonologically, grammatically, and lexically influenced by Gaelic English spoken in the North-East of Scotland tends to follow the phonology and grammar of Doric. Phonological features of Scottish E Although pronunciation features vary among speakers (depending on region and
social status), there are a number of phonological aspects characteristic of Scottish English: 1) Scottish English: rhotic accent, meaning /r/ is typically pronounced in the syllable coda; /r/: postalveolar approximant , as in Received Pronunciation or General American, but speakers have also traditionally used for the same phoneme a somewhat more common alveolar tap  or, now very rare, the alveolar trill [r] 2) Some dialects have merged non-intervocalic //, //, // before /r/ ( fernfirfur merger), BUT Scottish English makes a distinction between the vowels in fern, fir, and fur respectively. 3) Many varieties contrast /o/ and // before /r/ so that hoarse and horse are pronounced differently. 4) /or/ and /ur/: contrasted, so shore and sure are pronounced differently, as are pour and poor. 5) /r/ before /l/ is trill/tap. An epenthetic vowel may occur between /r/ and /l/ so that girl and world are two-syllable words for some speakers. The same may occur between /r/ and /m/, between /r/ and /n/, and between /l/ and /m/. 6) distinction between /w/ and /hw/ in word pairs such as witch and which. 7) /x/: common in names and in SSE's Gaelic and Scots borrowings. Some Scottish speakers use it in words of Greek origin as well, such as technical, patriarch, etc. (Wells 1982, 408). 8) /l/: usually velarised except in borrowings like "glen" (from Scottish Gaelic "gleann"), which had an unvelarised l in their original form.
9) In West Highlands), velarisation of /l/ may be absent , but remains in borrowings that had velarised /l/ in Gaelic, such as "loch" (Gaelic "loch") and "clan" (Gaelic "clann"). 10) /p/, /t/ and /k/ are not aspirated in more traditional varieties, but are weakly aspirated currently. 11) past ending -ed : [t] , after unstressed vowels: ended [ndt] , carried [kart] 12) Vowel length: non-phonemic, but a distinctive part of Scottish English is: the Scots vowel length rule (Scobbie et al., 1999). *vowels (such as /i/, /u/, and /a/) are generally long but are shortened before nasals and voiced plosives. However, this does not occur across morpheme boundaries so that need contrasts with kneed, crude with crewed and side with sighed. 13) Scottish English: NO //, instead : Scots /u/. Phonetically, this vowel may be pronounced  or even . Thus pull and pool are homophones. Cot and caught are not differentiated in most Central Scottish varieties, as they are in some other varieties. 14) most varieties, there is no //-// distinction; therefore, bath, trap, and palm have the same vowel. Phonological features of Scottish E 15) the happY vowel: most commonly /e/ (as in face), but may also be // (as in kit) or /i/ (as in fleece). 16) /s/is often used in plural nouns where southern English s/ is often used in plural nouns where southern English has /z/ (baths, youths, etc.); with and booth are pronounced with /s/is often used in plural nouns where southern English /.
In colloquial speech, the glottal stop may be an allophone of /t/ after a vowel, as in [br]. These same speakers may "drop the g" in the suffix -ing and debuccalise /s/is often used in plural nouns where southern English / to [h] in certain contexts. // may be more open  for certain speakers in some regions, so that it sounds more like  (although // and // do not merge). Other speakers may pronounce it as , just as in many other accents, or with a schwa-like () quality. Others may pronounce it almost as  in certain environments, particularly after /w/ and /hw/. Scottish English vowels Pure vowels Help key Scottish English Examples // [~] bid, pit
/i/ [i] bead, peat // [~] bed, pet /e/ [e()] bay, hey, fate // // // // /o/
// /u/ // bad, pat  balm, father, pa bod, pot, cot  bawd, paw, caught [o()] road, stone, toe good, foot, put  booed, food
[j] hue, pew, new R-coloured vowels (these do not exist in Scots) /r/  or  mirror, thirst /r/ [i()] or [i] beer, mere /r/  or  berry, merry (also in her)
/r/ [e()] or [e] bear, mare, Mary /r/ /r/ /r/ /r/ [()] or  [()] or  barrow, marry bar, card moral, forage born, for [o()] or [o] boar, four, more
/r/  or  boor, moor /r/  or  hurry, Murray (also in fur) /r/ 3-way distinction: , , ; or , ,  bird, herd, furry // 
Rosa's, cuppa /r/  or  runner, mercer Reduced vowels Scottish Vowels Scottish Standard E and Scots Four dialect groups: Central (Lowlands including Edinburgh and Glasgow), Southern (border districts), Northern (Angus, Aberdeen, Caithness), Island Scots (Shetland and Orkney) radically different lexical incidence of vowels: stone /sten/, arm /rm/ Scottish English // splits into 6 different vowels: book with /u/ (English loan); bull with // (from Middle English /u:/); English /u:/); foot with // (Northern Middle English fronting of /o/), boot with // (different development of NME fronting of /o/), lose with /o/ (unchanged from ME), loose with /u/ (from Old Norse)
retains Germanic /x/: daughter /dxtr/, night /nxt/ allows additional consonant clusters; e.g., /kn-, vr-, -xt/ Northern Scots replaces // with /f/ or //: white as /feit/, who as /f/, /fustkt/ (how ist ye cait) Orkney and Shetland formerly spoke Norn (dialect of (Old) Norse) dental stops instead of fricatives, /xw/ for /kw/ (question as /xwstjn/ ) SSE - PHONETIC/PHONOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS I strongly rhotic (trilled alveolar /r/ or alveolar tap / /) only partial merger of vowels before /r/: /r/ (bird), /r/ (heard), /r/ in (word, hurt) is the most common distribution monophthongized diphthongs: RP// as [o:]/ (go /go:/); RP // as /e/ (play /ple:/); RP /a/ as /u/ (house /hu:s/) or /u/ in weaker accent) dissolved vowel oppositions: no opposition /u:/ vs. //, e.g. pool and pull are homophones with /u/ (equally fool/full, look/Luke), good and mood rhyme some words may have a different vowel due to Scots influence: foot as [ft] / / and // merged to // such that cot and caught are homophones /a/ and / / merged to a single vowel, varying in realization but most often /a/ stressed RP vowel //: often lowered and retracted as // or even // (fin = fun) unstressed vowels often realized as //where RP has //: pilot as /pIt/, letter as
/ltr/ or /lr/ SSE - PHONETIC/PHONOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS II Scottish Vowel Lengthening Rule (Aitkens Law) vowels are short unless followed by a morpheme boundary, a voiced fricative or /r/ // and / / are always short tense vowels stay short if none of the conditions are fulfilled: bead /bid/, short as bid /bd/, lace /les/ short as less /ls/ otherwise the vowels are long: know /no:/, smooth /sm:/, Kerr /k:r/ oppositions are created depending on the occurrence of morpheme boundaries: minimal pairs: brood /brd/ vs. brewed /br:d/; need /nid/ vs. kneed /ni:d/ RP diphthong /a/ undergoes quantity and quality variation under the same conditions: long /ae/, e.g., in tied, high, prize, short //, e.g., in tide, like, light, time etc. non-initial /t/ often replaced by // (butter /br/, root /r:/), use decreases in higher social classes LANGUAGE HISTORY - SCOTS Scoti:Gaelic speakers in northern Ireland (Scotia = a Latin name for Ireland) converted to christianity by St. Patrick at around 500 AD they established a colony in northernmost mainland Britain and spread over the Highlands southward, displacing the Pictish language
in the Middle Ages: Gaelic was still spoken by the majority of Scots Scots: Germanic language descended directly from an Anglo-Saxon Northern Dialect of Old English established in the Lowlands (7th century Edinburgh) thus not considered a dialect of English , but a separate language (Aitken, 1998) Scandinavian influence via ME spoken by immigrants from Northern England established in the Lowlands, slowly spread northeast, exported to Northern Ireland in the 17th century cultural heyday 1376 - 1560: classic Scots literature (Barbour, Dunbar, Henryson, Blind Harry) with own spelling conventions, later Burns (18th), MacDiarmid (20th) alternative names: Inglis (13th 14th century), Lallans (since 16th century) periods: Northern OE 7th to 11th century; Older Scots 1100 1700 (Early Scots 1100 1450; Middle Scots 1450 - 1700); Modern Scots 1700 - present LANGUAGE HISTORY SCOTTISH ENGLISH Union of the Crowns (1603): James VI King of Scots becomes King of England at the death of Queen Elizabeth Union of the Parliaments (1707): Scottish Parliament dissolved into an expansion of the English Parliament, creating a British Parliament steady decline of Scots begins in 16th century, by the end of the 17th century English has gained considerable influence in Scotland no Scots bible translation; English as the language of religion and serious thought Scots considered provincial and unrefined after Union English comes to be the official written language of the whole country
continuum of usage from English with weaker or stronger Scottish accents to Scottish Standard English proper to SSE with Scots influence to urban Scots to rural Scots English learned formally in Highlands and northern and western islands (still Gaelicspeaking), thus no Scots influence
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