SCLY4 Crime and Deviance Revision Cards 2014 1 The specification at a glance Different theories of crime, deviance,social order and social control. Consensus theories vs Conflict theories Functionalism Ecological Subcultural New Right/Control Marxism Neo-Marxism Labelling The social distribution of crime and deviance: Age Ethnicity Gender, Locality Social class Globalisation and crime in contemporary society; the mass media and crime Globalisation and crime Green crime Human rights and state crimes. Crime control, prevention and punishment, victims, and the role of the criminal justice system and other agencies Policing and the courts Crime prevention Punishment (inc. Prisons) Victimology The sociological study of suicide Studies of suicide Theoretical and
methodological implications The connections between sociological theory and methods and the study of crime and deviance. Measuring crime (stats etc) Methods in Context 2 Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Theories of Crime and Deviance Gender and crime Age and Crime Ethnicity and Crime Social class and crime Area and Crime Mass Media and Crime Globalisation and Crime Policing and Courts Crime Prevention Punishment Victimology Suicide Measuring crime (usefulness of statistics) 3 1. Theories of Crime and Deviance Consensus Theories Conflict Theories
Functionalist Marxist Subcultural Neo-Marxist Ecological Feminist New Right/Control Theory Anti-Racist Sociology Labelling Harmony Social control and socialisation Community Shared values Police/courts/media fulfil a positive function Trust crime statistics Blame criminal Conflict Social control and ideology Police/courts/media serve the powerful Crime is socially constructed/ distrust statistics Blame society 4 For each theory ask. What influences our definition of deviance/crime? What is the cause of crime and deviance? Who are likely to commit crime and deviance? What is social order based upon? 5 CONSENSUS THEORIES 6
CONSENSUS THEORIES at a glance Functionalis m Functions of deviance Shared values Test boundaries Punishment unifies Social rules = clear Anomie Strengthen community Strain theory Subcultural Ecological New Right/Control Alternative values Urban areas Underclass Delinquency Lack of community Moral decay Status frustration Self-esteem/ rebellion Illegitimate Opportunity Structure Focal concerns Disorganisation Zone of
transition Informal social control Differential association Sink estates Tipping Nocturnal economy Welfare dependency broken windows Families without fatherhood Community decline Cost-benefit analysis Attachments/ bonds 7 Communitarianis m Functionalist Studies Evaluation Durkheim Functions of deviance Reinforces solidarity/commitment to shared values Punishment unifies community Social rules = clear Singles out undesirables Boundaries reinforces/tested = change Dysfunctions Crime is threat to social order Anomie normlessness = deviance Causes of crime Anomie from rapid social change Boundaries unclear/uncertainty Social order & social control Consensus = shared values = order Social control = socialisation = cohesion = integration = community Institutions restrict deviant behaviour Durkheim
What is the right amount of crime? (not scientific) Would victims find crime beneficial? Does not explain why certain commit crime (and what crimes they choose to do) Assume that laws reflect the interests of all in society (ignores power/ideology) Tends to blame the deviant Merton How can anomie be measured? (not scientific) Where do goals/means come from? (he ignores role of capitalism) Ignores subcultures driving the choice of individuals Doesnt explain crimes that are not driven by economic goal Merton Strain theory (goals and means) Anomie = strain between goals/means American Dream = pressure 5 responses to anomie (eg, innovation) General Ignore conflict in society (and power) Values are manipulated by the ruling class Laws are biased and serve the powerful Ignores crimes of the powerful Ignores group nature of crime Ignores selective policing/bias in the criminal justice system Ignore how the media can create crime 8 Studies Subcultural (Functionalis t)
Albert Cohen 1950s USA juvenile delinquency Working class youths socialised into alternative norms and values Caused by status frustration & blocked opportunities = sense of failure Rejection of mainstream values No monetary gain crime vandalism and fighting Gained status & rebellion Cloward & Ohlin Illegitimate opportunity structure Career ladder opportunities/status 3 structures (criminal/conflict /retreatist) Criminal subculture working class areas/networks/role models etc Miller Lower class values socialisation into these focal concerns Focal concerns smartness/toughness/ excitement/fatalism etc A source of status/self-esteem Evaluation Most working class boys do not commit crime They ignore female deviance Ignore middle class subcultures Ignore crimes of the powerful Most youths grow out of it Assume working class youth are raised in a vacuum and cut off from wider society/values They ignore labelling/biased policing Deterministic ignore free will Accept crime statistics as true Matza notes how subcultural membership is transitory 9 Studies Ecological Urban areas = high crime rate
City centre = less cohesion/ommunity Normlessness = anomie Social control is limited (informal) Shaw & McKay Neighbourhoods/zones Zones have distinct cultures/values Zone of transition = twilight zone inner city (cheap rented housing, poverty, high immigration, transitory population) = No bondscrime! Social disorganisation = no sense of community unstable..no controls Subculture = cultural transmission Shaped by people around them (differential association Sutherland) Marshall Sink estates in UK = crime Baldwin & Bottoms Tipping problem families onto certain estates Morris Found similar results when problem families concentrated in area (diff. assoc.) Skogan (USA) noted public space and disorder there..decline of neighbourhood Hobbs Nocturnal economy city centrespubs/clubs..expansion..more chance of criminal activity there Evaluation Which comes first? (crime or social disorganisation)? Most people in these areas do not commit crime
Ignores white collar crime by wealthy people in suburbs It may be that in urban areas there is a high concentration of young, deprived peoplerather than area Most youth crime is transitory..not permanent/fixed Maybe urban areas are policed more and crime figures reflect the fact they are over-policed Some areas are treated as problem areas by councils/police Ignores gentrification of cities in recent years, ie) Yuppie flats etc Ignores strong sense of community on working class estates 10 Studies New Right/ Control Theory - - Underclass theory Rational choice theory
Fears of moral decay Desire for greater control of people who harm normal society Critical of welfare state Murray Underclass reject mainstream norms and values Dependency culture Rise of single parents lack of discipline/no father figure/ poor socialisation/instability Families without fatherhood (Dennis) Communities damaged no bonds good people move away Evaluation Marxists are critical as the right use this theory to justify inequality Contradiction belief in selfish interests and community Most working class citizen are moral even though struggling in poverty Ignores middle class crime Ignores how the powerful manipulate society to control poor Attack on single parents Ethnocentricism bias Wilson (Broken Windows) Communities need informal soc. Cont. to reglate deviance Cost-benefit analysis = less chance of getting caught/no fear punishment Etzioni - Control theory
Government is disempowering communities Hirschi Low attachments = high crime Bonds (attachment/commitment/belief/ involvement Family = vital for socialisation 11 Norman Dennis - Families without Fatherhood (1993) Trends 30 years = family changes = weakened Decline of the traditional family Rise in cohabitation and decline of marriage Issue Family/community used to be a form of social control They used to restrict the extremes behaviour of youth People today struggle with inner policeman Crime related to: 1. Changing role of women = fathers now marginal 2. Fathers leaving families = no role model/discipline 3. Cohabitation = no moral fabricvalues/morals are relative Farrington & West - 1990 Findings Study Cambridge Longitudinal study (1953-1990) 1/3 of 411 boys = offenders by age 25 Delinquency linked to: Types of family linked to crime Poor parenting Fathers had criminal records Poverty & single parenthood 12 CONFLICT THEORIES
13 CONFLICT THEORIES at a glance Traditional Marxism Criminogenic capitalism Laws serve ruling class Ideological role of law/social control White collar crime Selective law enforcement Neo-Marxism Crisis of hegemony Symbolic resistance CCCS (Marxist Subcultural theory) Fully social theory of deviance Selective policing Labelling 14
Traditional Marxist Theories Studies Evaluation Society shaped by economic base Capitalist class exploit working class Society is based on conflict inequality and power central to crime an deviance Laws serve the powerful ideological Not all laws are just serving R/C many benefit workers Laws reflect value consensus Too deterministic ignores power of SFP Law serves ruling class R/C control laws Law enforcement benefits R/C Chambliss protect private property business interest = profits (tax loopholes/Vagrancy laws) Snider serve business state avoids tighter laws on pollution/Safety etc High crime rates in socialist countries Ignore the importance of values/culture and socialisation in criminality Ignores individual motivation Ignores gender/ethnic inequality Law as ideology & social control Althusser Ideological State App. Law (and crime) is defined by R/C Crime is seen as blood on streets & w/c White collar crime Crimes of the powerful (see next slide) Not all w/c people commit crime Left-Realists not how this focuses too much on crimes of the powerful
Laws can act against the R/C Criminogenic Capitalism Crime is normal under capitalism = greed/competition (Gordon) Poverty is created by capitalism = frustration/alienation Selective Law enforcement Reiman w/c crime most pursued Gordon selective policing feeds stereotype and divides w/c 15 White-Collar Crime What is it? Middle class crime by people of high social status/ respectability (Sutherland) Corporate crimes (business) White collar (employees) Level of harm 20 times more harmful than street crime (Snider) Harm from faulty goods/safety infringements/pollution etc Fraud far greater than burglary, mugging, theft (millions) (Levi) METHODS ISSUE White collar crime is very hard to investigate due to its invisible nature! Types
Employee theft Fraud Computer crime Tax fraud Crimes against consumers Crimes against employees Why hard to detect/police? (Croall) Invisibility Hard to isolate blame No direct victim Law is ambiguous/grey area Consumers dont report trivial Policed by inspections (not police) warnings/fines..not conviction! Technical knowledge/complex 16 ahead of police skill set NeoMarxist Theories (1) Studies Evaluation New Criminology (1973) Ignore female criminality Romanticises w/c criminal as a Robin Hood stealing from the rich (but left realists note their main victims are also working class/the poor) They ignore the seriousness of
these crimes on w/c victims Now described as Left Idealism as it was over-optimistic about the oppressed and their ability to exploit the crisis of hegemony and find a true class consciousness Taylor, Walton & Young (1973) Blended Marxism and Labelling See Trad. Marxism as deterministic Working class have choice Fully social theory of deviance which looks at structure and Wider origins of act, immediate origins of individual act, the act itself, immediate origins of societal reaction, wider origins of societal reaction, effects of labelling Marxist Subcultural Theory (see next slide) Ethnicity & Crime studies Gilroy black youth crime in 1970s = political response to racism/oppression Selective policing racist Hall - 1970s economic crisis = and a crisis of hegemony = scapegoating of black youths for problems = moral panic mugging scare Look back at your notes on GRAMSCI Hegemony Humanistic Marxism Voluntarism 17 Subcultural Theories Brief comparison Functionalist Marxist
Labelling CCCS (Birmingham Uni 1970s) Youth subcultures linked within a wider structural context Crisis in hegemony = working class youths see through R/C hegemony Working class youths find magical solutions to their oppressionresistance through rituals (Stuart Hall/ Dick Hebdige) Symbolic resistance expressed through subcultures Stealing signs and distorting their meaning (subcultural bricolage) Cohen Skinheads ultra w/c symbols as a response to destruction of working class communities in 60s Hebdige Punk nihilistic/shock collaging of symbols and distorted meanings Hall Rastas/Rudies challenges to racist Babylon 18 NeoMarxist Theories (2) Studies Evaluation New Left Realism (1984) Too much focus on w/c crime ignores white collar crime and its level of harm
Over reliance on statistical data Seem to have too much faith in the police as neutral Whats so new? Merton/Cohen Whats so left? anti-w/c Underplay the role of the media in influencing police Ignores the labelling process and its effect..need to use more qualitative data to explore motives Deterministic = not everyone who experience relative poverty = criminal Too much focus on urban crime in inner cities = makes it seem a greater problem 19 British Crime Survey 1983 = poor and marginal = main victims of crime (not the rich/powerful sack Robin Hood! UK riots 1981
Crime = a REAL problem Main criminals = working class/AfroCaribbean youths Lea & Young Also see Realism cards later on with focus on crime policy/solution s 3 factors Relative deprivation Feel deprived compared to others Advertising/consumerism = pressure Lack of means to reach goals = frustration Growth of self-interest which undermine family values/community Subculture Collective solutions to a groups problems Anti-mainstream values/culture as rejected by wider society Develop a way of life = street crime Marginality Groups lack power no voice Comparing Realist Theories of Crime & Deviance Right Realism Left Realism 20 Studies Labelling Theories (1) Note how these differ to structural theories as they focus on interaction/social constructionism Distrust official stats on crime Police not neutral Use qualitative methods (ethnographic) Committed
sociology Society creates deviance social constructionism They do not discuss economic matters (capitalism) Cooley looking glass self Origins Chicago School symbolic interactionism and later phenomenology Thinkers Becker/Goffman/Cicourel/Lemert Deviance as relative Normal/deviant are defined by society not fixed Becker deviant behaviour is behaviour so labelled Who controls definitions? (not the underdog) Social construction of deviance Becker society applies this label to certain groups..defines their actions as deviant = create outsiders Labels = stereotypes Selective policing of W/C, youths, males Greater surveillance of powerless groups seek and ye shall find Becker M/C negotiate with police more Lambert policing w/c estates in UK Cicourel stereotyping in courtrooms Kalven & Zaesel chivalry thesis (females) Effects of labelling Self concept shaped (Cooley) = SFP Primary & secondary deviance (Lemert) Stigmatisation & societal reaction = increases Label = master status (Becker) = identity Rejection = outsider = join deviant subculture Goffman deviant career learn culture deeper Young hippy marijuana users drug use more important after police sensitisation and negative
societal reaction to hippiesdefined as junkies Evaluation Over romantic too committed and see criminal as not so bad Too much focus on exotic and bizarre deviance (drugs use etc) Ignores origins of deviant acts There is absolute deviance Labelling is too deterministic simplistic one direction Deviants can adopt identity without being labelled Where do the stereotypes come from and why do the police use some and not others Out of date police today are trained to not be prejudiced They ignore economic power and the nature of capitalism in deviance Ignore women in research 21 Studies Labelling Theories (2) Evaluation Deviance Amplification This is how efforts to control/limit deviance = create more deviance Look back at Lemert secondary deviance grows after sensitisation & societal reaction Stan Cohen Folk Devils & Moral Panics (1972) Role of media in amplifying deviance Newspaper reporting of mods and rockers fighting and how it created more deviance Youths (folk devils) and media promoted a (moral panic) surrounding themneeded a solution! Media exaggerated the problem = public concern (sensitisation & societal reaction) Moral entrepreneurs magistrates/police/local council wanted to stamp it out = more concern More arrests and convictions Demonising mods/rockers (folk devils) = marginalisation = affected their identity/self concept - fighting was normalised Media = key role in causing public fear/concern about certain groups (immigrants/single mums
etc) Rule creation Becker - Laws = relative = serve interests of minority - conservative Moral entrepreneurs campaign to change law to serve their interests/values Use of media to stir moral crusades to influence the publics view and law makers The underdog has very little say in the process driven by powerful minority, eg) Marijuana Tax 22 7. Globalisation and Crime Includes: What is globalisation? The extent of the global crime economy Globalisation and :risk consciousness, capitalism and organisation Green crime Human rights and state crimes Think about: Power, harm and interconnectedness Crimes of the powerful Zemiology Nation states/large corporations power Cause major harm Hidden crime Unpunished crime Beyond traditional criminology How crime is defined The study of harm Crimes without
frontiers Beyond national boundaries Global connections = more opportunities 23 How to focus on this topic.. Globalisation is a game-changer for the study of crime Globalisation = new forms of crime/new opportunities Global crime = a challenge for nation-states and law making/jurisdiction (hard to police) Global crimes by powerful groups = able to define laws (to serve selves), able to hide crimes, able to escape punishment Global crimes = high level of harm/damage (to environment or to citizens) You can use these as strands to return to again and again in your analysis of them. These revision cards try to focus on these strands for you. 24 The extent of Global crime What is globalisation? The increasing interconnectedness of societies the widening, deepening and speeding up of world wide interconnectedness (Held) causes: global media, cheap travel,
ICT, migration, business links Crime across national borders Global risk consciousness (Beck) Fears of harm/need protection Media exaggeration/moral panics Immigration worries (welfare/jobs) Led to tighter border controls 9/11 terrorism and consequences The level of Global crime Manuel Castells global crime economy = 1 trillion per year Arms trafficking Trafficking nuclear materials People smuggling/illegal immigrants Prostitution/slavery Sex tourism Cyber crimes (fraud/pornography) Terrorism Green crime Drugs trade Demand (rich west) + Supply (3rd world) Money laundering Capitalism and crime
Ian Taylor greater inequality = crime Businesses (TNCs) switch to lowwage countries = poverty = insecurity + frustration = poor people turn to crime New crim. Opportunities for rich and powerful = insider trading/tax avoidance/moving funds Capitalist employers using foreign 25 labour + breaching laws New patterns of criminal organisation GLOCAL organisation McMafia Hobbs & Dunningham Glenny Global economic changes = local crime organisation Individuals with contacts form a hub Loose-knit networks NOT hierarchy (different to subcultures and traditional mafia style gangs) Key root = local context But has global connections Each locality will affect the nature of the criminal organisation (global crime filtered through a local lens) Organisations emerging after fall of communism in 1989 Deregulation of global markets Communism falls = free market except for natural resources, ie) oil Russian govt controlled these and kept prices low (communist officials bought these for next to nothing) They sold them abroad = high price Became very rich/powerful oligarchs Ex-KGB/former convicts formed mafias - used to protect this new
wealthy class, ie) Chechen Mafia Not like Italian mafia kin/hierarchy These mafias were purely economic/ driven by greed Chechen Mafia became a brand ruthless/protection rackets Exported brand elsewhere Built links around the world 26 Example old industry shut because of global competition = nocturnal economy in Sunderland bouncers/body capital Evaluation Not clear if these hubs are new Older structures may still run alongside Green Crime 1. Global risk society and environment Crime against the environment Planet is a single eco-system (goes beyond national boundaries) Examples: air pollution, water
pollution, nuclear disasters Mainly man-made risks today Beck manufactured risks are damaging humanity (made by industry/transport etc)..go beyond national boudaries 3.Types of Green Crime (Nigel South) Primary crimes Direct result of destroying Earths resources: (a) crimes of air pollution (b) crimes of deforestation (c) crimes of species decline/animal rights (d) crime of water pollution Secondary crimes Result from flouting the rules to prevent disasters: (a) State violence against opp. Groups eg) French Govt Greenpeace ship attack (b) Hazardous waste and organised crime eg) business dispose of waste illegally, ship 2. Green Criminology Traditional criminology Harm to the environment may be defined as legal though Traditional criminology is tied to criminal law and green crime ignored Situ & Emmons see env. Crime as an unauthorised act or omission that violates the law a definition that is limited by the law and who control it Green criminology (Rob White) Focus on harm rather than law Some of worst harm = not illegal This is transgressive criminology that moves beyond traditional criminology Different countries have diff. laws Looks at crimes of the powerful like Marxists note invisible/escape punish. 2 views of harm Anthropocentric view human view man can exploit envt. (businesses) 27 Ecocentric view humans and envt. Examples of Green crimes/studies Evaluation
Bhopal disaster 1984 - India Union Carbide Leaking cyanide safety failure 30 tons of gas = 20000 deaths and 120000 continue suffering recognises importance of global issues Air pollution from industry/transport Deforestation Amazon for beef cattle Water Pollution 25 million die each yr from contaminated water (toxic waste and untreated sewage) Day those who oppose governments supporting nuclear power/arms are seen as enemies of the state (Greenpeace) Walters ocean floor has been a radioactive rubbish dump for decades shows where law is lacking where harm is concerned reveals how the powerful define laws and hide crimes hard to define the boundaries of green criminology definitions are value-laden with moral criteria used Bridgland 2004 Tsunami = barrels of radioactive waste dumped by European countries washed up by Somalia Rosoff notes how cheap disposing of toxic waste in 3rd World coiuntries 28 The extent of state crime What are state crimes? Crimes of the powerful - state organised crime (Chambliss) Green & Ward illegal or deviant activities perpetrated by, or with complicity of, state agencies The state is able to define what is criminal Examples genocide, torture,
imprisonment without trial, assassination McLaughlin 4 categories of state crime Political crimes Crime by security/police forces Economic crimes Social/cultural crimes The extent of state crime Michalowski & Kramer argue that these crimes are s0 serious because: The state has a monopoly on violence potential to cause much harm It can conceal its crimes and avoid punishment It is hard to police the actions of these states (by other states) It makes laws and can use them to control/persecute their enemies 29 The extent of state crime Example of state crimes? Cambodia (1975-8) Pol Pots Khmer Rouge government killed 2 million people Nazi Germany persecution of Jews, the Final Solution Guantanamo Bay US using excessive methods with terror suspects Iraq Saddam Hussein attacking the Kurds in Northern Iraq
Vietnam My Lai massacre of 400 civilians by US troops during Vietnam war Hiroshima/Nagasaki Atomic bombs dropped by US on Japanese cities in WW2 The Violation of Human Rights Natural Rights/Civil Rights Protection from state Schwendinger & Schwendinger Crime = level of violation of human rights (harm/zemiology) States denying basic human rights Crimes include: racism, sexism, homophobia, economic exploitation Evaluation Cohen not objective/easy to explore economic exploitation There is limited agreement on what is classed as a human right 30 How states crimes become possible States hiding their crimes Cohen state crimes are being explored more within criminology and notes how states try to hide/ legitimate their crimes Denial 3 stages didnt happen/its not what it seems/its justified Neutralisation theory Applies Matzas model for justifying deviant behaviour
State crime as acceptable How normal people perform evil acts on behalf of states Kelman & Hamilton 3 factors that create crimes of obedience: Authorisation given permission = duty to obey Routinisation role/detached Dehumanisation enemy seen as sub-human (linked to propaganda) Dehumanisation and Techniques : denial of victim, denial modernisation of injury, denial of responsibility, condemning the condemners, appeal to higher loyalty Negotiation/social construction Science and technology help states to commit these crimes (Bauman) They dehumanise and turn mass 31 murder in a routine/admin task Globalisation & Crime (bring together) Evaluation Issue of defining crime Objectivity/values Political flavour (committed sociology) STATE CRIME GLOBAL
CRIME Levels/types(Castells) Risk consciousness Global capitalism Examine Globalisation & Crime What are state crimes? The level of harm Examples Violations of human rights How states conceal crimes (denial) How states make such crime acceptable Organisations Glocal McMafia GREEN CRIME Global risk consciousness Green criminology + harm Types of green crime Examples Evaluation 32
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