Scaffolded Reading Jennifer Throndsen PreK-12 Literacy and Library Media Coordinator Utah State Board of Education Thats Me Learning Targets
Learning Intentions Participants will explore instructional strategies and practices to scaffold reading instruction in both whole group and small group settings.
Success Criteria I can identify specific elements that make a text challenging and strategies to scaffold. I can describe the
difference between guided reading and scaffolded reading. Define Scaffolding In the literacy
classroom, What does scaffolding look like? What does scaffolding sound like? Scaffolding Defined
A process that enables a child or novice to solve a problem, carry out a task or achieve a goal which would be beyond his unassisted efforts (Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976) Supported situations in which children can extend current skills and knowledge to a higher level of competence (Rogoff, 1990) What teachers say and do to enable children to complete complex mental tasks they could not complete without assistance (Pearson and Fielding,
1991) A temporary supportive structure that teachers create to assist a student or a group of students to accomplish a task that they could not complete alone (Graves, Watts, & Graves, 1994) Types of Scaffolding in Reading Whole group vs. small group
Before, during, and after reading Whole Group Strategies Instructional Routine #1: Building Fluency
A fluent reader reads with accuracy: pronounces words correctly rate: an appropriate pace, not too slow or fast, pausing at meaningful intervals expression: emotion, emphasizing key words in phrases punctuation: interprets punctuation such as commas and question marks
Goals of Instructional Routine #1 Building Fluency Build fluency: for challenging level text before partner reading or silent independent reading Structure engagement: ensure students are reading, not just passively listening to you read
Instructional Routine #1: Building Fluency What is it? Reading with appropriate rate, accuracy, pronunciation, and expression/prosody. Preparation: Chunk text into manageable segments. Direct students to number the text segments in pencil.
Select 3-5 words per segment to omit as you read aloud. Select words you have pre-taught, strong words that carry familiar meaning, and words that come at the end of phrases. Building Fluency: Practice Task Building Fluency: Other Active
weaker reader rereads next) The Challenge of Challenging Text Vocabulary Sentence Structure Coherence Organization
Background Knowledge Vocabulary Higher-order thinking in reading heavily depends on knowledge of word meanings Often instruction emphasizes domain-specific words (e.g., erosion, rhombus, metaphor)
Need to provide instruction on the essential but more general academic terms Students ability to comprehend a piece of text depends on the number of unfamiliar domain-specific words and new general academic terms they encounter. Sentence Structure
Determines how words operate together The stork was walking in the beautiful cornfield More than just being able to define individual words How the words fit together (Which stork? Where was the stork? What was it doing?) Length: short vs. long
Coherence How particular words, ideas, and sentences in text connect with one another John and Mary went to space camp. They liked it there. Of course, boys often like rockets, but Mary, too, enjoyed it.
Organization Sequence (e.g., time, flashbacks) Compare and Contrast (e.g., alligators and crocodiles) Problem-Solution (e.g., causes of water pollution) Text features Background Knowledge Readers prior knowledge
Developmental Experiential Cognitive Factors Application I Do The Kid Who Invented the Popsicle p. 14 Blue Jeans
Application We Do The Kid Who Invented the Popsicle p. 22 Chewing Gum Evaluate Vocabulary
Sentence Structure Coherence Organization Background Knowledge Scaffolding Strategies Preview the text
Preteach vocabulary Teacher reads aloud the text Active reading strategies Chunking text Peer and small group discussion Text-dependent questioning
Building connections Partially completed or structured graphic organizer Provide sentence frames for discussion Provide sentence or paragraph frames for writing about what
they read Preview the Text Preteach Vocabulary Chicle Hardened sap from a Sapodilla
Tree Teacher reads the text aloud Active Reading Strategies Chunking Text
Peer or small group discussion prior to whole group discussion Text-Dependent Questioning Building Connections
Partially completed or structured graphic organizer Provide sentence frames for discussion Weather patterns affect humans by
_______________________. While trying to make ____________, Adams was successful in __________________. Provide sentence of paragraph frames for writing about what they
read Scaffolding Strategies: Application Choose a before, during, and after strategy and describe how you would incorporate them if you
were to use the chewing gum or the blue jeans text. Small Group Strategies Guided Reading or Scaffolded
Reading? Guided Reading What are the characteristics of guided reading?
Scaffolded Reading Guided Reading Purpose is to allow students to integrate newly acquired skills and knowledge while reading text for meaning
Largely focused on comprehension skill and strategy development Allows for teacher to monitor student application of skills Scaffolded Reading
Read and Respond 3, 2, 1 3 Key Ideas 2 Questions 1 Thing to Remember
Points to Ponder Instructional level is not a placement. It is something you take on through scaffolding. -Dr. Tim Shanahan Shouldnt the teacher, rather than the text, serve as the
primary source of scaffolds? -Fisher & Frey R.L. 10: Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently 2nd Grade: By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including
stories and poetry, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 3rd Grade: By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 4th Grade: By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently,
with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 5th Grade: By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. Range of Reading
Expected Lexile Levels Guided Reading Scaffolded Reading Opportunity to grapple with text that is more difficult than they
can access on their own Provides students and the teacher with the opportunity to talk at length about the learning Pose questions, engage in speculation, support and challenge claims, draw
conclusions Guided Reading Scaffolded Reading Three purposes: Extension of close reading
Preparation for close reading or collaborative reading tasks Address the assessed needs of specific students Learning Targets Learning Intentions
Participants will explore instructional strategies and practices to scaffold reading instruction in both whole group and small group settings.
Success Criteria I can identify specific elements that make a text challenging and strategies to scaffold. I can describe the difference between guided reading and scaffolded
reading. Questions? Jennifer Throndsen Utah State Board of Education PreK-12 Literacy and Library Media Coordinator [email protected]
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