Routing and Routing Protocols - Chipps

Routing and Routing Protocols - Chipps

Routing and Routing Protocols Last Update 2009.07.17 1.5.0 Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 1 Objectives Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

2 Routing Tables Population For the router to be able to handle arriving frames, entries must be made into the routing table Entries in a routing table can be generated in three ways Directly connected routes Static routes Dynamic routes Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

3 Directly Connected Routes When a data line exists When a cable is connected between the demarc of that data line and an interface of the router When the data line is active When the interface on the router is activated A directly connected route is added to the routing table Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

4 Directly Connected Routes Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 5 Static Routes When the administrator uses the ip route command to add a route to the routing table

Static routes are used when The internetwork is small, may seldom change, or has no redundant links The routers need to use dial backup to dynamically call another router when a leased line fails Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 6 Static Routes An enterprise internetwork has many small branch offices, each with only one possible

path to reach the rest of the internetwork An enterprise wants to forward packets to hosts in the Internet, not to hosts in the enterprise network Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 7 Result of Using a Static Route Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

8 Result of Using a Static Route Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 9 Dynamic Routes When a routing protocol is activated on the router When other routers running the same

routing protocol talk to each other Then the routes know by the other routers are added to the routing table as dynamic routes Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 10 Routing Table Entries The command show ip route shows the routing table Each of these methods of entering routes

in the routing table has an indicator associated with it C for directly connected networks S for static routes R for routes learned through the RIP routing protocol as an example of a dynamic route Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 11 Two Ways to Look at Protocols Routing Protocols Routed Protocols

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 12 What is a Routing Protocol What is a routing protocol These are network layer protocols that are responsible for path determination and traffic switching These have to do with the actual routes the packets take and how that path is calculated

These protocols include RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 13 What is a Routing Protocol Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 14

What is a Routed Protocol What is a routed protocol These protocols are routed by the routing protocols They are concerned with the construction and transport of the data itself regardless of how it arrives at its destination When the OSI model talks about encapsulation, this is what it is referring to Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 15

What is a Routed Protocol These cover all 7 layers of the OSI model These protocols contain enough information in the fields in their headers that allow the packet to be routed from one network to another by the routing protocol Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 16 What is a Routed Protocol

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 17 Static v Dynamic Routing Static routes, as we will see, are entered from the keyboard and do not require routing protocols Dynamic routes are created by routing protocols Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

18 Static v Dynamic Routing Static routing consists of entries made into the routing table in the router by the network administrator prior to the beginning of routing These entries do not change unless the network administrator alters them Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

19 Static v Dynamic Routing This method works well in environments where network traffic is relatively predictable and where network design is relatively simple Because static routing systems cannot react to network changes, they generally are considered unsuitable for today's large, changing networks Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

20 Static v Dynamic Routing Whereas dynamic routing protocols can adjust to changing network circumstances by analyzing incoming routing update messages If the message indicates that a network change has occurred, the routing software recalculates routes and sends out new routing update messages Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

21 Static v Dynamic Routing These messages permeate the network, stimulating routers to rerun their algorithms and change their routing tables accordingly Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 22 Static v Dynamic Routing

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 23 Static v Dynamic Routing Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 24 Dynamic Routing Protocols

Dynamic routing protocols usually have one or more of the following design goals Optimality Low overhead Robustness Flexibility Rapid convergence Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 25 Routing Protocol Optimality

Optimality refers to the capability of the routing protocol to select the best route, which depends on the metrics and metric weightings used to make the calculation Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 26 Routing Protocol Overhead Low overhead refers to simple and efficient overhead

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 27 Routing Protocol Robustness Routing protocols must be robust, which means that they should perform correctly in the face of unusual or unforeseen circumstances, such as hardware failures, high load conditions, and incorrect implementations Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 28 Routing Protocol Flexibility Routing protocols should also be flexible, which means that they should quickly and accurately adapt to a variety of network circumstances Assume, for example, that a network segment has gone down As they become aware of the problem, many routing protocols will quickly select the nextbest path for all routes normally using that segment

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 29 Routing Protocol Convergence Routing protocols must converge rapidly, which is a process of agreement, by all routers, on optimal routes When a network event causes routes either to go down or become available, routers distribute routing update messages that permeate networks, stimulating recalculation of optimal routes and

eventually causing all routers to agree Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 30 Routing Protocol Convergence Routing protocols that converge slowly can cause routing loops or network outages An example of the need for rapid convergence is seen in the use of distance vector protocols Routers using routing protocols based on

the distance vector method receive their neighbors routing table Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 31 Routing Protocol Convergence Using this they build a network map This approach to learning can cause problems such as routing loops and counts to infinity Routing loops can occur if the internetwork is slow to converge on a new configuration

after a route fails This situation will produce inconsistent entries in the router tables Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 32 Dynamic Routing Protocols Lets organize the different types of routing protocols and then discuss each one Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

33 Dynamic Routing Protocols Dynamic Routing Protocols Intradomain or Interior Distance Vector Interdomain or Exterior

Link State Path Vector Standard Proprietary Standard Proprietary Standard

HELLO 1 IGRP1 OSPF NLSP1 EGP1 RIP V11 EIGRP

IS-IS BGP RIP V2 1 No Longer Used Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 34 No Longer Used HELLO

The original NSFnet backbone consisted of six Digital Equipment Corporation LSI-11 computers located across the United States These computers ran special software colloquially called fuzzball that enabled them to function as routers These fuzzball routers connected various networks to the NSFnet and the ARPAnet Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 35 No Longer Used

The six NSFnet routers worked as an autonomous system and like any AS, used an interior routing protocol to exchange routing information The routing protocol used in these early routers was called the HELLO protocol It was developed in the early 1980s and documented in RFC 891 published December 1983 Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 36

No Longer Used The name HELLO is capitalized, but is not an acronym; it simply refers to the word hello, since the protocol uses messages that are sort of analogous to the routers talking to each other The HELLO protocol uses a distance-vector algorithm, like the RIP Unlike RIP, HELLO does not use hop count as a metric Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 37

No Longer Used Instead, it attempts to select the best route by assessing network delays and choosing the path with the shortest delay One of the key jobs of routers using HELLO is to compute the time delay to send and receive datagrams to and from its neighbors On a regular basis, routers exchange HELLO messages that contain clock and timestamp information Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

38 No Longer Used By comparing the clock value and timestamp in the message to its own clock using a special algorithm, a receiving device can compute an estimate for the amount of time it takes to send a datagram over the link HELLO messages also contain routing information in the form of a set of destinations that the sending router is able to reach and a metric for each Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

39 No Longer Used However in this case, the metric is an estimate of the round-trip delay cost for each destination This information is added to the computed round-trip delay time for the link over which the message was received, and used to update the receiving router's own routing table Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

40 No Longer Used RIP Version1 This version of RIP only supports FLSM based on address classes As address classes no longer exist version 1 is useless Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 41

No Longer Used IGRP With the deployment of EIGRP and OSPF there is no longer any need for IGRP Therefore, no one uses it any longer Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 42 No Longer Used NLSP

NLSP - NetWare Link Services Protocol is a link-state routing protocol in the Novell NetWare architecture NLSP is based on the OSI IS-IS or Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System protocol and was designed to replace IPX RIP and SAP, Novell's original routing protocols that were designed for small scale internetworks Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 43

No Longer Used Compared to RIP and SAP, NLSP provides improved routing, better efficiency, and scalability As no one uses NetWare anymore, no one uses NLSP any longer Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 44 No Longer Used EGP

EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol was the first routing protocol used to allow autonomous systems to talk to each other It was developed in 1982 by Eric C. Rosen and David L. Mills It was first formally described in RFC 827 and formally specified in RFC 904 in 1984 EGP is no longer used Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 45 No Longer Used

BGP - Border Gateway Protocol is now the accepted standard for Internet routing and has essentially replaced the more limited EGP Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 46 Interior and Exterior Protocols What is the difference between the various classes of routing protocols Where are exterior and interior protocols used

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 47 Interior and Exterior Protocols AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM INTRADOMAIN INTERIOR RIP IGRP EIGRP OSPF

USED INSIDE AN AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM INTRADOMAIN INTERIOR RIP IGRP EIGRP OSPF USED INSIDE AN AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM INTERDOMAIN EXTERIOR BGP

USED BETWEEN AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS ALL ROUTERS THAT ARE DIRECTLY COMMUNICATING WITH EACH OTHER MUST ALL USE THE SAME ROUTING PROTOCOL. THIS MUST BE BE INTRADOMAIN, IN OTHER WORDS INTERIOR, ROUTING PROTOCOL. IT CAN BE EITHER A DISTANCE VECTOR OR LINK STATE TYPE OF ROUTING PROTOCOL. IF THESE ROUTERS ARE ALL FROM DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS, THEN THE ROUTING PROTOCOL MUST BE STANDARDS BASED, NOT PROPRIETARY.

ALL ROUTERS THAT ARE DIRECTLY COMMUNICATING WITH EACH OTHER MUST ALL USE THE SAME ROUTING PROTOCOL. THIS MUST BE BE INTRADOMAIN, IN OTHER WORDS INTERIOR, ROUTING PROTOCOL. IT CAN BE EITHER A DISTANCE VECTOR OR LINK STATE TYPE OF ROUTING PROTOCOL. IF THESE ROUTERS ARE ALL FROM DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS, THEN THE ROUTING PROTOCOL MUST BE STANDARDS BASED, NOT PROPRIETARY. Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 48 Interior and Exterior Protocols Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 49 Interior and Exterior Protocols Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 50 Intradomain v Interdomain Some routing protocols work only within domains Others work between domains A domain in these terms is an autonomous system, which is a group of routers under a single administrative control Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

51 Intradomain v Interdomain The nature of these two types of routing protocols is different In that the intradomain routing protocols are concerned with talking to only their close relatives Whereas interdomain routing protocols are concerned with talking to strangers Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

52 Intradomain v Interdomain Using these two types enables the organization to control the type and amount of outside traffic that comes in and goes out of its network The terms are also expressed as interior intradomain and exterior interdomain Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

53 Intradomain v Interdomain Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 54 Distance Vector Protocols A distance vector protocol is so named because its routes are advertised as vectors - distance and direction - where distance is defined in terms of a metric

and direction is defined in terms of the next hop router These, known as Bellman-Ford protocols, call for each router to send all or some its routing table, but only to its neighbors Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 55 Distance Vector Protocols In this arrangement each router depends on its neighbors for information, which its neighbors may have learned from their

neighbors, and so on An individual router has no way of knowing if the information in the routing table it receives is accurate These routers just believe everything they hear Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 56 Distance Vector Protocols As such distance vector routing protocols are sometimes referred to as routing by

rumor A typical distance vector routing protocol uses a routing algorithm in which routers periodically send routing updates to all neighbors by broadcasting their entire routing table Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 57 Distance Vector Protocols In this case periodically means to transmit on a regular schedule

Neighbors are those routers at the other end of a data line The originating router sends its update to this neighbor It expects the neighbor to send the information on to that router's neighbors, and so on Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 58 Distance Vector Protocols This update includes everything the router

knows In other words its entire routing table with a few exceptions is sent out Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 59 Link State Protocols The information that a distance vector protocol has available has been likened to a road sign That is it is just one more step on the

journey Whereas the information available to a link state protocol is more like a road map Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 60 Link State Protocols A link state routing protocol cannot be easily fooled into making a bad routing decision because - with the map - it has a complete picture of the network

This is because link state routers have first hand information from all of their peer routers, those that speak the same routing protocol Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 61 Link State Protocols Each of these routers originates information about itself, its directly connected links, and the state of those links

This information is passed around from router to router, each router making a copy, but no router changing the information How does this all work Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 62 Link State Concepts Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

63 Link State Protocols Like this Each router establishes a relationship - an adjacency - with each of its neighbors Each router sends link state advertisements to each neighbor One link state advertisement is created for each of the router's links, identifying the link, the state of the link, the metric cost of the link, and the neighbors that are connected to the link

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 64 Link State Protocols Each router receiving this information in turns forwards it to its neighbors Each router stores the link state advertisements it has received in a database Since all routers receive all link state advertisements, all routers have the same information The algorithm for the routing protocol is then

applied to the information in the link state database to create a routing table Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 65 Dijkstra Algorithm Link-state protocols use the Dijkstra SPF Shortest Path First algorithm to calculate and add routes to the IP routing table The SPF algorithm calculates all the possible routes to each destination network, and the cumulative metric for the entire path

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 66 Dijkstra Algorithm Each router views itself as the starting point, and each subnet as the destination, and use the SPF algorithm to look at the LSDB - Link State Database to create a roadmap and pick the best route to each subnet Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 67 Characteristics of Link State The main features of link-state routing protocols All routers learn the same detailed information about the states of all the router links in the internetwork The individual pieces of topology information are called LSAs, with all LSAs stored in RAM in the LSDB

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 68 Characteristics of Link State Routers flood LSAs when they are created, on a regular but long time interval if the LSAs do not change over time, and immediately when an LSA changes The LSDB does not contain routes, but it does contain information that can be processed by the Dijkstra SPF algorithm to find a routers best routes

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 69 Characteristics of Link State Each router runs the SPF algorithm, with the LSDB as input, resulting in the best - lowest cost - routes being added to the IP routing table Link-state protocols converge quickly by immediately reflooding LSAs and rerunning the SPF algorithm

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 70 Characteristics of Link State Link-state protocols consume much more RAM and CPU than do distance vector routing protocols If the internetwork changes a lot, link-state protocols can also consume much more bandwidth due to the relative to distance vector protocols large number of bytes of

information in each LSA Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 71 Routing Metrics Routing protocols use metrics to determine the best or optimal route The following metrics are often used Path Length Reliability Delay

Bandwidth Load Cost Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 72 Routing Metrics Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 73

Routing Metric Components Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 74 Example Routing Metrics Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 75

Administrative Distance A single router may learn routes from many different sources For example, from static routes and from running multiple routing protocols When a router learns more than one route to the same subnet, from different sources, the router needs to decide which route is best and then add that route to the IP routing table Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

76 Administrative Distance Because each routing protocol uses a different metric, a router cannot use the metric to determine which route is the best route When choosing between multiple routes to the same destination but learned from different sources, the router picks the route with the lowest administrative distance Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

77 Administrative Distance The administrative distance is a number assigned to all the possible sources of routing information, routing protocols and static routes included Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 78

Default Distance Values Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 79 Administrative Distance The administrative distance is shown by issuing the show ip route command The show ip route command output lists the administrative distance for most routes, with the notable exception of connected routes, which default to an

administrative distance of 0 The example shown next shows the output of the show ip route rip command Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 80 Administrative Distance The output highlights the administrative distance for the one RIP route known on router R1, which defaults to RIPs setting of 120

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 81 Administrative Distance Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 82 Multiple Equal Cost Routes A single router may learn several routes to

the same subnet, but the metrics may tie These routes are typically called equalcost routes When this occurs, the router uses the following logic to choose which route to add to its routing table Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 83 Multiple Equal Cost Routes It can add up to four of the routes to the routing table, which is the default

The number of equal-cost routes added to the routing table can be changed to between one and six by using the maximum-path number command as a subcommand of the routing protocol After routes are added to the routing table, the router then load-balances the traffic over various routes Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 84

Multiple Equal Cost Routes Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 85 Populating Routing Tables Lets now look a little closer at the details of the two ways of populating routing tables Static Routes Dynamic Routes

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 86 Static Routes To use static routes an entry is made directly into the router's routing table from the command line of the router's operating system For example, to make such an entry into the routing table of a Cisco router the following is done

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 87 Static Routes At the enable level routername#config terminal routername(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.224 S0 routername#CTRL Z This is read as follows The command is ip route

The IP address is the address to be entered into the table Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 88 Static Routes Next is a subnet mask to identify the network portion of the IP address Last is the address of the directly connected interface of the next hop router In this case out serial port 0

The above is done for all routes at each router This method is used for two main reasons Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 89 Static Routes The first is it is all that is needed for a private network in a hub and spoke arrangement The second reason is security

If no information is exchanged with any outside entity, it is less likely that anyone will be able to determine the extent and layout of your network Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 90 Static Default Route There is a special kind of static route that is used when an entry cannot be found in the routing table for the network of interest This special type of static route is also

used on stub networks when there is no other way out of the network In this case every packet that does not belong on the LAN is sent out to the default route Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 91 Static Default Route When a router receives a packet whose network address is not found in the routers IP routing table, the router

discards the packet, unless a default route has been configured A default route tells a router where to send packets that do not match any of that routers other IP routes Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 92 Static Default Route Default routes can be most useful in two major cases In routers that have only one possible

physical path to forward packets to the rest of the internetwork To route packets to the Internet, when there is a single connection to the Internet For example in the diagram that follows Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 93 Static Default Route Each branch office has one router, with the only link back to the headquarters

The enterprise network also has one link to an ISP for its Internet connection Configuring of static default route is similar for both cases On branch router R1, the command would be as follows ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 S0/0 Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 94 Static Default Route

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 95 Gateway of Last Resort This type of route is also called a gateway of last resort, since without a default route, a router discards packets whose destination address does not match the routers routing table Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

96 Floating Static Routes A floating static route is a static route that the administrator wants to be used some of the time The term floating comes from the idea that the static route leaves the routing table under some conditions and comes back into the routing table under other conditions Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

97 Floating Static Routes Floating static routes can be very useful for dial backup, using the following logic When a WAN connection is up, the router should ignore the static route and instead use the routes learned by the routing protocol These routes will forward packets out the permanent WAN connection When the permanent WAN connection is down, use the statically defined route that sends traffic over the dial backup link

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 98 Advertising Default Routes In some cases, it makes sense to distribute a default route throughout an internetwork Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 99

Advertising Default Routes For example in the diagram that follows All routers in the enterprise internetwork learn about all subnets of Class B network 130.1.0.0 via RIP Router R-core defines a static default route pointing to the Internet Router R-core advertises a default route to the rest of the routers in the enterprise Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

100 Advertising Default Routes Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 101 Dynamic Routes Unlike static routes, which point one way and only one way, a dynamic routing protocol can compensate for changes in the network without someone having to go

to the command line of each router and make the change There are only a few major routing protocols that can do this work for you Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 102 Dynamic Routes Of course all the routers must speak the same language for this to work Recall as well that dynamic routing protocols fall into two general classes

Distance Vector Link State Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 103 Distance Vector Protocols Distance vector routing protocols include RIP Routing Information Protocol EIGRP Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 104 Link State Protocols Link state routing protocols include OSPF Open Shortest Path First IS-IS Intermediate System to Intermediate System Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

105 Path Vector Protocols The final type is the path vector sort, of which there is only one Border Gateway Protocol Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 106 Which One to Use Cisco will spend more time on the routing

protocols they invented or prefer In the real world the two main interior routing protocols are OSPF OSPF is used by both Cisco only and mixed vendor shops EIGRP EIGRP is used by Cisco only operations Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 107

Which One to Use There is a reasonable amount of RIP in use still IGRP is rarely used, but is seen in small operations IS-IS is used by some ISPs and the like Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 108 Review What is the difference between static and

dynamic routing What is the difference between distance vector and link state routing protocols What dynamic routing protocols are commonly used Copyright 2005-2009 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 109

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Datamation Sort 1 Million Record Sort using OpenMP

    Datamation Sort 1 Million Record Sort using OpenMP

    Datamation Sort 1 Million Record Sort using OpenMP and MPI Sammie Carter Department of Computer Science N.C. State University November 18, 2004
  • Le 400eme de Quebec - Acadian.org

    Le 400eme de Quebec - Acadian.org

    J'ai tant d'histoires à raconter Des grands bateaux, des conquérants De la tourmente, de la beauté Et des coeurs fous de liberté Défiant le vent J'ai tant d'histoires à raconter L'anse au Foulon, la Citadelle Quatre cents hivers, autant d'étés...
  • Importance of Digestion Importance of Digestion Since we

    Importance of Digestion Importance of Digestion Since we

    Prosecretin. Provides negative feedback to slow down peristaltic movements allowing time for fat digestion. Neutralize HCl from the stomach. When activated to trypsin (by enterokinase), converts long chain peptides into short chain peptides (protein) When activated to secretin promotes release...
  • Delivering Innovative Models of Clinical Education

    Delivering Innovative Models of Clinical Education

    Delivering Innovative Models of Clinical Education. Clinical Educator Workshop. ... Garling report (related to students acquiring high level skills) ... Delivering Innovative Models of Clinical Education Last modified by:
  • Chapter One: Moral Reasons - Cengage

    Chapter One: Moral Reasons - Cengage

    Whether an act is right or wrong depends on the moral norms of society and not on an absolute standard. Individual relativism: Moral truths are not absolute but relative to individuals. Whether an act is right or wrong depends on...
  • Lipids - siumed.edu

    Lipids - siumed.edu

    Lipids Storage (neutral) Membrane (polar) PL GL TAG GPL SL SL FA G S FA FA FA P C MS/OS P A Eric Niederhoffer SIU-SOM Glycerophospholipids Sphingolipids Phospholipases Review Questions What are the general lipid classes?
  • Laws and Regulatory Foundations for Risk Assessment University

    Laws and Regulatory Foundations for Risk Assessment University

    In addition to statutory mandates, rulemaking can be initiated by Presidential or agency initiatives, required reviews, lawsuits, petitions, or recommendations from other agencies or external groups. So what is the hierarchy of authority in the Federal system? [Refer to inverted...
  • How does the equation for valuing a bond change if semiannual ...

    How does the equation for valuing a bond change if semiannual ...

    The risk of a decline in a bond's price due to an increase in interest rates. For example, 15-year bond, par value of $ 1,000, 10% annual coupon. Bond Price at moment 0 is $ 1,000. If the going interest...