River Tees - North East England

River Tees - North East England

Case Studies Development Goat Aid Advantages: - Goat milk and meat is an excellent food source Background - Brings village together as they look after the goat(s) Oxfam charity - Goats breed easily which makes it sustainable Gives goats to families and villages - Manure can be used as crop fertiliser Produce food and income Disadvantages: Most of the work is carried out in Africa.

- Transporting the goat to a new environment can be an issue lack of transportation and animals may not like it. Non-governmental organisation doesnt rely on support from the Government. Focused on widowed women by providing a goat which will create multiple benefits. - Veterinary care is expensive and will be hard to find in places such as Africa - They need to be taught how to look after the goat properly training costs Sustainability - Goats can easily be looked after and require little input It is a self-perpetuating system, so once they have received a goat, it can breed to grow a new herd this makes it sustainable Once a goat has been bred, it is then given back to the organisation so it can be given to help other people = sustainable project A GOATASTIC GIFT!

Give a Goat as a gift and help support Oxfam in their campaign to help people in Africa improve their lives. Computer Aid Background The main aim of all the charities involved is to help close the digital divide between the less developed and the more developed world. Computer Aid International (UK) is one of the leading charities. It asks British businesses and organisations to donate unwanted computers to support education and health projects around the world, particularly Africa. The computers are checked and digitally cleaned before being sent to partner organisations. Provide e-learning courses and training C/S: Training teachers in Ghana - - All secondary-level school children in Ghana are set ICT exams, however few schools actually have computers.

Computer Aid has been working with Computers for Education and Development(CFED) to provide PCs for use in an ICT training programme for teachers. Teachers are then able to use ICT to the best possible advantage improve lesson content and quality across all subjects therefore improve education and employment prospects. Advantages Remote medical centres in Kenya can get help from Doctors in Nairobi using PCs, digital camera and scanners Can use the internet to connect to World Health Organisation (WHO) for up to date information and treatment of killer diseases e.g. Malaria, HIV/AIDS and TB Farmers can get accurate forecasts on likelihood of rains to help decide best crop to grow Students are able to develop their computer skills and can now use this to get better paid jobs IT has been recognised by UN as a driving force for the development. Disadvantages Software is unreliable and incompatible Insufficient staff to provide technical support and lack of knowledge Running costs can be high due to bad technology connections in

comparison to the UK, USA etc. Some think that Africa is the dumping ground for unwanted hardware Nike Multinational Company or Slave Driver Nike, Inc. is an American multinational corporation that is engaged in the design and development, manufacturing, worldwide marketing and sales in footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories and services. Headquarters are in Oregon, USA It is one of the worlds largest suppliers of athletic shoes and apparel with a revenue in excess of US$24.1 billion in its fiscal year 2012. As of 2012, it employed more than 44,000 people worldwide. More than 700 shops around the world and offices in 45 countries outside the US. Like many multinational companies/ transnational companies, Nike subcontracts or uses independently owned factories in different countries to produce its trainers- often in LEDCs as labour costs are low. most of the factories are located in Asia. China boasts the largest number of Nike contract factories 124 in total. Majority of workers are women under the age of 25

What is happening in Indonesia: - Many of the workers in the Indonesian factories come from the surrounding countryside where they live in poverty. - They face low wages and long hours, industrial accidents such as loss of limbs, poor health due to bad conditions and lack of breaks - No workers rights trade unions are illegal in Indonesia and when workers do complain or protest they can lose their jobs - Exploited and easily replaced - Although 60% of factories monitored met the required standards, of factories were found to present some serious problems workers at 9 Nike factories in Indonesia had suffered sexual/verbal abuse, lack medical attention and compulsory overtime. - Female workers gained jobs through sexual favours Companies arguments against exploitation claims: - Contractors say they cannot afford to pay their workers more and Nike says that it is difficult to control what is happening in individual factories. - Nike say they are in the business of marketing shoes, not making them. - Set up the Fair Labour Association a non-profit group

that combines companies, human rights and labour representatives to establish independent monitoring and code of conduct minimum age and work hours Factors that influence economic activity MEDC: M4 CorridorAdvantages - Land on the edge of cities is often cheaper The M4 Corridor stretches from Heathrow airport in the east to Bath and Bristol in the west. The corridor is home to companies such as Hewlett Packard and Sony who are involved in research and development (quaternary industry) and have links with universities who provide well-qualified graduates. Few raw materials are used

and therefore transport costs are low, making the industries Footloose (companies not tied to a particular location). - Out of town surroundings (green spaces) and accessible to workers - Ideal location for building science and business parks space to build - Motorway and rail links provide access for commuters and people on business as well as transporting components and products easier. Examples of companies along the M4 Corridor: Large company: Icera designs chips for smartphones, USB data dongles and other wireless devices for some of the worlds largest mobile companies such as Nokia, LG, Samsung etc Smaller company: CHQ specialises in helping schools to organise their sports and extra-curricular activities

Disadvantages - Workers wanting to live near their place of work increases the demand for housing and puts pressure on green belt land - As demand grows, house prices increase - Less skilled and lower paid workers disadvantaged to desirable areas Conflict between economic activity and the environment: The Pearl Delta - China Chinas Pearl River Delta has overtaken Tokyo to become the worlds largest urban area in both size and population. It is considered a megacity which covers a significant part of Chinas manufacturing heartland, is now home to more people than the countries of Canada, Argentina or Australia. The Pearl Delta has experienced Rapid Urbanisation growing from 4,500 sq/km in 2000 to nearly 7,000 sq/km in 2010. Data Facts: In 2013, the GDP grew by an average of 9.4% - accounted for 79.1% of Guangdongs GDP or 9.3% of Chinas GDP. Also, the regions Foreign Direct Investment stood at US$23.1bn, 19.6% of the national total in China.

Guangzhou is beocming one of the three auto manufacturing bases in China. It is estimated that more than 80% of Chinas coastal water and about 70% of its rivers and lakes are polluted with industrial waste, raw sewage and agricultural runoff. The Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) is responsible for the protection of the natural environment in China but has limited funding, staff and control of transnational companies. MEP relies on local government funding many of whom are unwilling to invest in environmental protection. 86% of the Chinese population live and depend on the Pearl River Delta but there is a lack of sustainable management of these waters. Marine wildlife is being destroyed and polluted by chemical waste from manufacturing. .The Galapagos Islands represent a place in the world were ECOTOURISM takes place. This is environmentally friendly tourism where the people involved seek to protect the environment as much as possible and to allow for some level of education as well. In many cases of ecotourism, some of the profits go back into protecting the environment and the tourism is small scale, with low visitor number densities and environmental approaches to accommodation and

food. The Galapagos Islands The Galapagos are run along these lines because; Tourists visit under strict rules They can only visit on small ships of 10 to 16 tourists, most of which are owned by local people The tourists can only visit a limited number of places on the Islands, thus protecting the rest of the Islands The tourists are only allowed to visit in small numbers. Visitors also receive information on how to conserve the Islands prior to their departure to the Islands. The Galapagos Islands are most famous because many of the plants and animals found there are not found anywhere else in the world. This is because the islands are isolated or cut off from the rest of the Worlds land mass by the Pacific Ocean, allowing the plants and animals to EVOLVE in their own way for hundreds of thousands of years. Approximately 90% of the Islands are designated as National parks and there are only 20,000 permanent human residents (although this has risen from 9,000 only 20 years ago), allowing for a high degree of protection of the environment. The area became the first UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979 and they are also a biosphere reserve.

They also have to pay a 25 fee to promote conservation on the Islands Despite all of this, there are still some problems from the overuse of some sites (honey pot sites), oil spills from boats, and pollution to the Islands water supply and the water supply is put under pressure from the tourists use. However, local people make a valuable living from tourism and there are few other employment opportunities available. Tourists also generate a lot of businesses in the local economy as guides, restraints, hotels, boats owners and cleaners all benefit. Oil Palm in Borneo and Indonesia Palm oil is used by virtually every one of us in one form or another (see photo at the bottom of this text). In its basic form it is used in processed or prepared foods such as bread, cakes, breakfast cereals and ready meals, as well as ice cream, margarine and crisps. The vast majority of the worlds palm oil comes from Malaysia and Indonesia where the expansion of the industry has destroyed millions of hectares of rainforest. This deforestation is said to be far greater than the rate of deforestation due to logging in the

Amazon rainforest. In the past the majority of palm oil production has been for food and cosmetics but now the European Union have agreed to cut greenhouse gasses by 20% by 2020 we are having to find a new source of fuel for our transport. The answer is said to be bio-fuels however this will mean that Indonesia and Malaysia will produce more palm oil which will result in further destruction of some of the most valuable rainforest on the planet. The effect of this destruction will mean that many species of plants and animals that live in these rainforests will be lost forever. Examples of species that will be lost are the Sumatran tiger, Asian Elephant and the Orangutans of Borneo The FOE (Friends of the Earth) have highlighted how the palm oil industry is having a devastating impact on the orangutans of Sumatra and Borneo. Some orangutans are killed off as the land they live on is cleared for palm tree plantation and others are killed as they have a fondness for eating palm oil seeds. The rate of the forest clearance along with the killing of the orangutans is happening so quickly that orangutans could be extinct within 15 years. 98% of the Indonesian forest is expected to be destroyed by 2022 At the moment there are between 55,000 and 60,000

Orangutans in Borneo but 5,000 to 10,000 orangutans are killed each year. Case Studies Coasts Holderness Coast Where is the Holderness Coast? What is the problem? Holderness Coast is on the NE coast of the UK, facing the North Sea Mainly made up of cliffs (20-30m high), consisting of soft, easily eroded boulder clay. Where the cliff line meets the Humber Estuary, a spit has formed due to the change in the direction of the coastline Spurn Head. The cliff line is retreating at an alarming rate greater than 1m/yr (fastest rate in Europe) 4km of land has been lost since Roman Times. Easington Gas Station (a North Sea Gas Terminal) is situated on the cliffs top and its position is under threat. Why is Cliff Erosion such a problem here? The cliffs are made up of soft glacial material (Boulder Clay- made up of sands and gravels) which is easily eroded by the waves and

the cliffs are easily undermined wave cut notch. The Holderness Coast is very exposed and approaching waves have a long fetch over the North Sea. The waves are mainly destructive eroding the base of the cliffs (hydraulic action and abrasion). Most of the material eroded from the cliffs is washed out to sea longshore drift and deposition occurring beaches are narrow and do little to protect the coastline. The coastline is further threatened by sea-level rise. Protecting Mappleton: The village of Mappleton is greatly undertreat by coastal erosion along the coastline and by 1998, the main road running through the village was only 500m

from the cliff top (in places now only 50m). Suffers erosion up to 2m per year. To reduce amount of erosion, 2 rock groynes were constructed in 1991 to encourage the build up of the beach by trapping longshore drift waves breaking on the beach rather than on the cliff. However, this has increased erosion further down the coast due to no fresh sediment being moved south, which could accelerate erosion of cliffs south of Mappleton to 10m/yr. Dawlish Warren Where is Dawlish Warren? Dawlish Warren is a small seaside resort of the south coast of Devon. The resort consists almost entirely of holiday accommodation and facilities for holiday-makers tourism is a key income provider for many who live in the area. Situated at the mouth of the River Exe, opposite Exmouth. Why does it need protecting? There is evidence from old maps that show the spit has changed in size and shape over many years around 200 metres of the spit has been eroded. Major rail links pass through Dawlish Warren - In 2014, a major storm destroyed part of the railway line at Dawlish and cut off Devon and Cornwall to the rest of England. Multi-use area: used by holiday makers, golfers and Dawlish Warren is also a National Nature Reserve.

Natural spit that is protecting the River Exe up towards Exeter if the spit is eroded, Exeter is open to flooding and erosion. Coastal Management: - Considerable amounts of coastal engineering have taken place in and around Dawlish Warren and spit. - There is a sea wall with re-curve and breakwater to the west and rock-armour(rip-rap) revetments to try to slow down erosion. These are located at the proximal end where they are most needed. - On the spit itself, there are wooden groynes constructed to keep sand on the beach and slow down the process of longshore drift. Sand gabions have also been used to encourage the sand to build up and protect the nature reserve.

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