CHAPTER 2 Risk and Return: Part I 1 Topics in Chapter Basic return concepts Basic risk concepts Stand-alone risk Portfolio (market) risk Risk and return: CAPM/SML 2 What are investment returns?

Investment returns measure the financial results of an investment. Returns may be historical or prospective (anticipated). Returns can be expressed in: Dollar terms. Percentage terms. 3 An investment costs $1,000 and is sold after 1 year for $1,100. Dollar return: $ Received - $ Invested

$1,100 - $1,000 = $100. Percentage return: $ Return/$ Invested $100/$1,000 = 0.10 = 10%. 4 What is investment risk? Typically, investment returns are not known with certainty. Investment risk pertains to the

probability of earning a return less than that expected. The greater the chance of a return far below the expected return, the greater the risk. 5 Probability Distribution: Which stock is riskier? Why? Stock A Stock B -30 -15 0 15

30 45 60 Returns (% ) 6 Consider the Following Investment Alternatives Econ. Bust Below avg. Avg. Above avg. Boom Prob T-Bill

. 0.10 0.20 0.40 0.20 0.10 8.0% Alta Repo Am F. MP 22.0% 28.0% 10.0% 13.0% 8.0 -2.0

14.7 -10.0 1.0 8.0 20.0 0.0 7.0 15.0 8.0 35.0 -10.0

45.0 29.0 8.0 50.0 -20.0 30.0 43.0 7 What is unique about the T-bill return?

The T-bill will return 8% regardless of the state of the economy. Is the T-bill riskless? Explain. 8 Alta Inds. and Repo Men vs. the Economy Alta Inds. moves with the economy, so it is positively correlated with the economy. This is the typical situation. Repo Men moves counter to the economy. Such negative correlation is unusual. 9 Calculate the expected

rate of return on each alternative. ^ r = expected rate of return. ^ n r r i Pi . = i= 1 r^ Alta = 0.10(-22%) + 0.20(-2%) + 0.40(20%) + 0.20(35%) + 0.10(50%) = 17.4%. 10 Alta has the highest rate of return. Does that make it best?

^ r Alta Market Am. Foam T-bill Repo Men 17.4% 15.0 13.8 8.0 1.7 11 deviation of returns for each alternative? = Standard deviation = Variance = 2

= n ^ (ri r)2 Pi. i= 1 12 Standard Deviation of Alta Industries = [(-22 - 17.4)20.10 + (-2 - 17.4)20.20 + (20 - 17.4)20.40 + (35 - 17.4)20.20 + (50 - 17.4)20.10]1/2 = 20.0%.

13 Standard Deviation of Alternatives T-bills = 0.0%. Alta = 20.0%. Repo = 13.4%. Am Foam = 18.8%. 14 Stand-Alone Risk Standard deviation measures the

stand-alone risk of an investment. The larger the standard deviation, the higher the probability that returns will be far below the expected return. 15 Expected Return versus Risk Security Alta Inds. Market Am. Foam T-bills Repo Men Expected return 17.4% 15.0 13.8

8.0 1.7 Risk, 20.0% 15.3 18.8 0.0 13.4 16 Coefficient of Variation (CV) CV = Standard deviation / expected return CVT-BILLS = 0.0% / 8.0% = 0.0.

CVAlta Inds = 20.0% / 17.4% = 1.1. CVRepo Men = 13.4% / 1.7% = 7.9. CVAm. Foam = 18.8% / 13.8% = 1.4. CVM = 15.3% / 15.0% = 1.0. 17 Expected Return versus Coefficient of Variation Security Alta Inds Market Am. Foam

T-bills Repo Men Expecte d return Risk: Risk: CV 17.4% 15.0 13.8 8.0 20.0% 15.3 18.8 0.0

1.1 1.0 1.4 0.0 1.7 13.4 7.918 Return Return vs. Risk (Std. Dev.): Which investment is best? 20.0% 18.0% 16.0% 14.0% 12.0% 10.0%

8.0% T-bills 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% 0.0% 5.0% Alta Mkt Am. Foam Repo 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0%

Risk (Std. Dev.) 19 Portfolio Risk and Return Assume a two-stock portfolio with $50,000 in Alta Inds. and $50,000 in Repo Men. ^ r and Calculate p p . 20 Portfolio Expected Return ^ rp is a weighted average (wi is % of portfolio in stock i): n ^ rp = w^ i ri

i=1 rp^= 0.5(17.4%) + 0.5(1.7%) = 9.6%. 21 Alternative Method: Find portfolio return in each economic state Econom y Bust Below avg. Average Above avg. Boom Port.= 0.5(Alta) +

0.5(Repo Repo ) 28.0% 3.0% 14.7 6.4 Prob. 0.10 0.20 Alta -22.0% -2.0 0.40 0.20 20.0 35.0

0.0 -10.0 10.0 12.5 0.10 50.0 -20.0 15.0 22 Use portfolio outcomes to estimate risk and expected return ^ rp = (3.0%)0.10 + (6.4%)0.20 + (10.0%)0.40 + (12.5%)0.20 + (15.0%)0.10 =

2 2 = ((3.0 9.6) 0.10 + (6.4 9.6) 0.20 p 9.6% +(10.0 - 9.6)20.40 + (12.5 9.6)20.20 + (15.0 - 9.6)20.10)1/2 = 3.3% CV = 3.3%/9.6% = .34 23 Portfolio vs. Its Components

Portfolio expected return (9.6%) is between Alta (17.4%) and Repo (1.7%) Portfolio standard deviation is much lower than: either stock (20% and 13.4%). average of Alta and Repo (16.7%). The reason is due to negative correlation (r) between Alta and Repo. 24

Two-Stock Portfolios Two stocks can be combined to form a riskless portfolio if r = -1.0. Risk is not reduced at all if the two stocks have r = +1.0. In general, stocks have r 0.35, so risk is lowered but not eliminated. Investors typically hold many stocks. 25 What happens when r = 0?

Adding Stocks to a Portfolio What would happen to the risk of an average 1-stock portfolio as more randomly selected stocks were added? p would decrease because the added stocks would not be perfectly correlated, but the expected portfolio return would remain relatively constant. 26 1 stock 35% Many stocks 20% 1 stock

2 stocks Many stocks -75 -60 -45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 10 5 Returns (% ) 27 Risk vs. Number of Stock in Portfolio p 35% Company Specific (Diversifiable) Risk Stand-Alone Risk, p 20% Market Risk 0

10 20 30 40 2,000 stocks 28 Stand-alone risk = Market risk + Diversifiable risk Market risk is that part of a securitys stand-alone risk that cannot be eliminated by diversification. Firm-specific, or diversifiable, risk is that part of a securitys standalone risk that can be eliminated by diversification. 29 Conclusions

As more stocks are added, each new stock has a smaller risk-reducing impact on the portfolio. p falls very slowly after about 40 stocks are included. The lower limit for p is about 20%=M . By forming well-diversified portfolios, investors can eliminate about half the risk of owning a single stock. 30 Can an investor holding one stock earn a return commensurate with its risk?

No. Rational investors will minimize risk by holding portfolios. They bear only market risk, so prices and returns reflect this lower risk. The one-stock investor bears higher (stand-alone) risk, so the return is less than that required by the risk. 31 How is market risk measured for individual securities?

Market risk, which is relevant for stocks held in well-diversified portfolios, is defined as the contribution of a security to the overall riskiness of the portfolio. It is measured by a stocks beta coefficient. For stock i, its beta is: bi = (ri,M i) / M 32 How are betas calculated? In addition to measuring a stocks contribution of risk to a portfolio, beta also which measures the stocks volatility relative to the market. 33

Using a Regression to Estimate Beta Run a regression with returns on the stock in question plotted on the Y axis and returns on the market portfolio plotted on the X axis. The slope of the regression line, which measures relative volatility, is defined as the stocks beta coefficient, or b. 34 Use the historical stock returns to calculate the beta for PQU. Year

Marke t PQU 1 25.7% 2 3 8.0% 11.0% 40.0% 15.0% 15.0% 4

15.0% 35.0% 5 32.5% 10.0% 6 35 PQU Return Calculating Beta for PQU 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

0% -10% -20% -30% -30% -20% -10% rPQU = 0.8308 rM + 0.0256 R2 = 0.3546 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Market Return 36

What is beta for PQU? The regression line, and hence beta, can be found using a calculator with a regression function or a spreadsheet program. In this example, b = 0.83. 37 Calculating Beta in Practice Many analysts use the S&P 500 to find the market return.

Analysts typically use four or five years of monthly returns to establish the regression line. Some analysts use 52 weeks of weekly returns. 38 How is beta interpreted? If b = 1.0, stock has average risk. If b > 1.0, stock is riskier than average. If b < 1.0, stock is less risky than average.

Most stocks have betas in the range of 0.5 to 1.5. Can a stock have a negative beta? 39 Finding Beta Estimates on the Web Go to Thomson ONEBusiness School Edition using the information on the card that comes with your book. Enter the ticker symbol for a Stock Quote, such as IBM or Dell, then click GO. 40 Other Web Sites for Beta

Go to http://finance.yahoo.com Enter the ticker symbol for a Stock Quote, such as IBM or Dell, then click GO. When the quote comes up, select Key Statistics from panel on left. 41 Expected Return versus Market Risk: Which investment is best? Security Alta Market Am. Foam T-bills Repo Men

Expected Return (%) 17.4 15.0 13.8 8.0 1.7 Risk, b 1.29 1.00 0.68 0.00 -0.86 42 each alternatives required return.

The Security Market Line (SML) is part of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). SML: ri = rRF + (RPM)bi . Assume rRF = 8%; rM = rM = 15%. RPM = (rM - rRF) = 15% - 8% = 7%. 43 Required Rates of Return rAlta = 8.0% + (7%)(1.29) = 17%.

rM = 8.0% + (7%)(1.00) = 15.0%. rAm. F. = 8.0% + (7%)(0.68) = 12.8%. rT-bill = 8.0% + (7%)(0.00) = 8.0%. rRepo = 8.0% + (7%)(-0.86) = 2.0%. 44 Expected versus Required Returns (%) Alta Exp.

r 17.4 Market 15.0 Am. F. 13.8 Req. r 17.0 Undervalue d 15.0 Fairly valued 12.8 Undervalue45 SML: ri = rRF + (RPM) bi

ri = 8% + (7%) bi ri (%) . . rM = 15 rRF = 8 . Repo -1 0 . Alta . T-bills 1

Market Am. Foam 2 Risk, bi 46 Calculate beta for a portfolio with 50% Alta and 50% Repo bp = = = = Weighted average 0.5(bAlta) + 0.5(bRepo) 0.5(1.29) + 0.5(-0.86) 0.22.

47 Required Return on the Alta/Repo Portfolio? rp = Weighted average r = 0.5(17%) + 0.5(2%) = 9.5%. Or use SML: rp = rRF + (RPM) bp = 8.0% + 7%(0.22) = 9.5%. 48 Impact of Inflation Change on SML r (%) New SML I = 3% SML2

SML1 18 15 Original situation 11 8 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Risk, bi 49 Impact of Risk Aversion Change r (%)

After change SML2 SML1 18 RPM = 3% 15 Original situation 8 1.0 Risk, bi 50 Has the CAPM been completely confirmed or refuted?

No. The statistical tests have problems that make empirical verification or rejection virtually impossible. Investors required returns are based on future risk, but betas are calculated with historical data. Investors may be concerned about both stand-alone and market risk. 51