Rhetoric and Figurative Language: The Power of Language in Speech and Memoir Created by Claire Hardi and Kaitlin Rhetoric and Figurative Language: The Power of Language Essential Questions: What is the power of language? Where does that power come from?
Rhetoric and Figurative Language: The Power of Language Key Terms Rhetoric and Figurative Language: The Power of Language Objectives: I can define rhetorical terms and types of figurative language used in speeches and memoir. discuss how rhetoric and figurative language impact my personal experience
What is a Speech? A formal address or discourse delivered to an audience orally. A work of non-fiction. Examples: Inaugural addresses, State
of the Union, and commencement ceremonies. Speeches have a theme. The theme of a work is usually considered to be the universal message or main idea. There can be several themes in a single work. Ex: A theme of Romeo and Juliet is
making impulsive decisions rarely creates the desired result in the longrun. Literal Language vs. Figurative Language: Literal Meaning Speeches are different from everyday conversation because they employ different levels of meaning to effectively communicate their themes.
Literal Meaning The exact meaning of a work or phrase taken without any added exaggeration, imagination, or connotation. Literal meaning is the opposite meaning of figurative language. What is Figurative Language? Variations from the normal order,
structure, or meaning of words to gain strength and depth of expression to create visual or other sensory effects in the readers mind. Figurative Language: Simile, metaphor, personification What is Imagery ? A word or sequence of words that refer to a
sensory experience. Images may be in either figurative language or in literal language. Imagery is not a synonym for figurative language. An image always appeals to one or more of the senses. In its broad sense, imagery means the pattern or collection of images within a poem or other literary work. What is rhetoric?
Rhetoric is language that is designed to influence us. The art or logic of the written or spoken argument. Rhetorical writing is purposeful. Examples of rhetorical purposes include
to persuade, to analyze, or to expose. Why is rhetoric important to identify or understand? We are constantly bombarded with rhetoric. Language is a powerful tool for those who know how to use it to influence others. We will familiarize ourselves with a variety of rhetorical techniques in order
to become more critical users and consumers of language. Ethos Ethos: (Ethical appeal). A way of convincing an audience through establishing the speakers credibility. This is accomplished by proving the speaker is fair, knowledgeable, trustworthy, and considerate. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sfy8UYRhmpA
Pathos Pathos: (Emotional appeal). A way of convincing an audience by creating an emotional response. Can play on fear, worry, nostalgia, etc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =Hzgzim5m7oU Logos
Logos: (Logical appeal) A way of persuading an audience through reason, facts, and statistics. Cheerios uses the statistic Lower your cholesterol 4% in 6 weeks. Tone Also called attitude or mood is the way the author presents a subject. A particular
tone results from a writers diction, sentence structure, purpose, and attitude toward the subject. An authors tone can be: serious, scholarly, humorous, mournful, or ironic. Remember the differences between Mary Poppins and Scary Poppins last semester? Diction
The authors way of speaking. This is the way that the author, character, or speaker speaks and their word choice. Maggie Smith & Carol Burnett on Accents Diction affects the tone of the work How does the difference between the way Henry Higgins and Eliza Doolittle speak classify or place them in society? Metonymy
Representative term used for a larger idea. Ex: The pen is mightier than the sword. Rhetorical Question A question that is asked simply to make a point. No answer is expected. Can anyone look at
the record of this Administration and say, "Well done"? -Ronald Reagan, 1980 Republican National Convention Acceptance Address Simile A comparison between two things (that may or may not be alike) using the words like or as.
Ex: Lisa looks like a total fox today. Bob is hungry as a wolf. Metaphor A comparison of two unlike things without using like or as. (Things = person, place, thing, or thought) Ex: Bob is a hungry wolf. Lisa is a fox. This class is my ticket out of
MHS. Hyperbole An obvious and deliberate exaggeration (to emphasize something or for humorous purposes) not intended to be taken literally. Ex: He could eat a horse. She cried for days. Running faster than the speed of light.
I had a ton of homework. Irony and Paradox Irony: Saying the opposite of what you actually mean. Ex: The directions were as clear as mud. Paradox: A statement that seems to contradict or oppose itself, yet actually reveals some truth.
Ex: The less you have, the more you are free. Her silence was deafening. Understatement A figure of speech in which something is deliberately underrated or said to be
less than it is. Understatement has the effect of implying that the thing described is more than it is, allowing the reader to add the significance. Upon winning a million dollar lottery, you say Thats nice. The Black Knight from Monty Python and the Holy Grail Anaphora Repeating the same word or phrase at the beginning of a series of phrases or sentences. we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on
the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. -Winston Churchill, Speech to the House of Commons Epistrophe o Repeating the same word or phrase at the end of a series of phrases or sentences. o Purpose is to add meaning/emphasis
or build to a climax. that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth. - Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address Antithesis Phrasing in which two contrasting ideas are intentionally placed sideby-side. Tonight you voted
for action, not politics as usual. You elected us to focus on your jobs, not ours." - Barack Obama, 2012 Victory Speech Alliteration Repetition of the same consonant sound at the beginning of several words in a sequence.
All for which America stands is safe today because brave men and women have been ready to face the fire at freedom's front. Ronald Reagan, Veterans Address at Vietnam Memorial Allusion A reference to a well-known person, event, place, or work of art.
"And I can pledge our nation to a goal: When we see that wounded traveler on the road to Jericho, we will not pass to the other side." -- George W. Bush, 2000 Inaugural Address. Note: The reference here is to the biblical character in the parable about the good Samaritan.
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