Revolutions in Networks and Grids for HEP and Global Science
Internet Performance for Africa and the rest of the World Prepared by: Les Cottrell , SLAC Umar KalimSEECS,NUST/SLAC International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, 24 April 2009 www.slac.stanford.edu/grp/scs/net/talk09/ictp-apr09.ppt 1 Summary African Infrastructure Why is Internet Measurement Important?
Methodology of measuring Internet performance Overall world Internet performance & where does Africa stand Africa directions Wireless/fibre, Routing, Costs, Difficulties, Conclusions & further information 2 Africa is Huge India 10% area, but > population, hard to get fibre everywhere 3 and diverse (e.g. languages) More than 1,000 indigenous African languages including several spoken by tens of millions such
as Igbo, Swahili, Hausa, Amharic, and Yoruba; Plus Arabic, English, French, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Spanish, Indian languages, others 4 African World Light at Status night Fibres Internet city connections
Capacity From Telegeography 5 Area Population World Views Cartogram perspective see www.geog.qmw.ac.uk/gbhgis/conference/ cartogram.html Tertiary Education from http://www.worldmapper.org/ Internet Users 2002
6 Possible Attractions Large Population (~1 Billion) Youthful population Saturation of developed markets makes emerging markets interesting to business (Vital Wave) Leapfrog technologies (cell phones, wireless ) Mature Emerging Strategic Emerging Niche Emerging Longterm
Why Make Internet Measurements? In the Information Age Information Technology (IT) is the major productivity and development driver., particularly science & education Travel & the Internet have made a global viewpoint critical One Laptop Per Child ($100 computer) New thin client paradigm, servers do work, requires networking (Google: Negroponte $100 computer), driving Intel & AMD cheap net-books Internet enabled cell phones (e.g. iPhone) Enables Internet Kiosk & Cafe can make big difference Need to understand & set expectations of the Internet accessibility, performance, costs etc.
8 Methodology Use PingER: Arguably the worlds most extensive Active E2E Internet Monitoring project Partially funded by MoST Pakistan, US State Department Last six years - a joint development effort of Stanford University (SLAC) & NUST (SEECS) Many SEECS students cut their teeth on it, several research papers & studies Results (Highly successful in quantifying E2E performance) Identified & quantified rates of improvement for regions / countries, last miles, inefficient routing, congestion, fragility How far behind, catching up, falling behind Many presentations to funding agencies, politicians, NRENs,
recommendations 9 PingER Methodology extremely Simple ICTP emhost r g n i p > Uses ubiquitous ping 10 p
ing Once a Day Monitoring host Pin g re qu es Internet tp ac ke ts ea
ch 30 re sp on se pa ck ets Remote Host (typically a server) m ins
Data Repository @ SLAC Measure Round Trip Time & Loss 10 PingER Deployment PingER project originally (1995) for measuring network performance for US, Europe and Japanese HEP community - now mainly R&E sites Extended this century to measure Digital Divide: Collaboration with ICTP Science Dissemination Unit http://sdu.ictp.it ICFA/SCIC: http://icfa-scic.web.cern.ch/ICFA-SCIC/ >165 countries (98% worlds population, >99% worlds connected population) Monitors (>40 in 23
countries 3 Africa) Beacons ~ 90 (all monitors monitor beacons) Remote sites (>700) 11 PingER Growth in Time IHY/eGY NUST ICFA ICTP & NATO
12 World Measurements: Min RTT from US Maps show increased coverage Min RTT indicates best possible, i.e. no queuing >400ms probably geo-stationary satellite Between developed regions min-RTT dominated by distance - Little improvement possible Only a few places still using satellite for international access, mainly Africa & Central Asia 2000 2008
13 Loss With TCP (>80% Internet traffic) recovery from loss can take several seconds, such delays make interactive use annoying to impossible. For non TCP multi-media traffic loss causes poor voice/video (VoIP/H323) above 1.5%,loss > 0.5% unacceptable for IPTV http://www.slac.stanford.edu/comp/net/wan-mon/tutorial.html#loss Africa by far worst region, 10-20 times worse than developed regions 14 World Throughput Trends
Behind Europe 5 Yrs: Russia, Latin America, Mid East 6 Yrs: SE Asia 9 Yrs: South Asia 12 Yrs: Cent. Asia 16 Yrs: Africa Derived throughput ~ 8 * 1460 /(RTT * sqrt(loss)) Mathis et. al 1993 Central Asia, and Africa are in Danger of Falling Even Farther behind
In 10 years at the current rate Africa will be 1000 times worse than Europe 15 Similar Results from Europe (CERN) (so for rest use SLAC Results since more coverage) EU, US/CA, Oceania, E. Asia lead SE Europe, Russia catching up S. Asia. Mid East, C. Asia poor Africa poor and falling behind 16
Some Other World Views Capacity Voice & video (de-jitter) Data Transfer Network & Host Fragility 17 ITCP Internet Weather for Africa www-iepm.slac.stanford.edu/pinger/africa-weather0 8.mov 18 Demo
Shows population=bubble area, y=throughput, x=RTT as a function of time Note Improved performance & increase of coverage with time Africa clusters towards long RTT and poor throughput (bottom left) and generally far worse than rest of world African varies by countries (cf Egypt & Ethiopia) Big variations year to year Correlate with DOI index (opportunity, infrastructure, usage) by mobile telephony, Internet tariffs, #computers, fixed line phones, mobile subscribers, Internet users)/population http://www-iepm.slac.stanford.edu/pinger/pinger-metrics-motion-chart.html 19
Google Motion Chart Applet 20 Mediterranean. & Africa vs HDI HDI related to GDP, life expectancy, tertiary education etc. There is a good correlation between the 2 measures N. Africa has 10 times poorer performance than Europe N. Africa several times better than say E. Africa E. Africa poor, limited by satellite access W. Africa big differences, some (Senegal) can afford SAT3 fibre others use satellite Great diversity
between & within regions 21 African Situation 1 yr of Internet access > average annual income of most Africans, Survey by Paul Budde Communications Survey (IHY meeting Ethiopia in November 07) of leading Universities in 17 countries (will repeat with more clarity): Each had tens of 1000s of students, 1000 or so staff Best had 2 Mbits, worst dial up 56kbps Internet Caf in Ghana Often access restricted to faculty Access to the internet is so desirable to students in Africa that they spend considerable time and money to get it. Many students surveyed, with no
internet connection at their universities, resorted to private, fee-charging internet cafes to study and learn. www.arp.harvard.edu/Africa HigherEducation/Online.html School in a secondary town in an East Coast country with networked computer lab spends 2/3rds of its annual budget to pay for the dial-up connection. Disconnects Heloise Emdon, Acacia Southern Africa 22 Sub-Saharan broadband cost off-scale Source ITU www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2009/index.html
23 Opportunities: Routing Seen from TENET Cape Town ZA Only Botswana & Zimbabwe are direct Most go via Europe or USA Wastes costly international bandwidth Need IXPs in Africa 24 IXPs a Major Issue for African Internet International bandwidth prices are biggest contributor to high costs
African users effectively subsidise international transit providers! Fibre optic links are few and expensive reliance on satellite connectivity High satellite latency slow speed, high prices Growth of Internet businesses is inhibited In 2003 10 out of 53 countries had IXPs, now 16 More IXPs lower latency, lower costs, more usage Both national and regional IXPs needed Also needed: regional carriers, more fibre optic infrastructure investment Need NRENs country ->region Internet Then international IXPs Amrico Muchanga [email protected], 25 September 2005 A
IXP B 25 Opportunities: Fibre, satellite, mobiles Satellite is extremely effective in reaching places where the volume of traffic would not justify a fibre connection. GEOS satellite $/Mbps 300-1000 x Fibre, severely bandwidth-constrained and high latency So fibre international and to major cities Scramble to provide international fibre for World Cup 2010 then wireless (cell phone, wimax, LEOS) cell phone growth leads Internet growth by 4.5 years 16 LEOS (reduce latency) - Sep 2008 Google signed up with Liberty Global and HSBC in a bid to launch 16 LEOS satellites, to bring high-speed
internet access to Africa by end 2010 ABUJA Africa's first communications satellite has suffered an energy failure just 18 months after its launch - Nov. 2008 26 African International Fibres 2010 Current: SAT-3-WASC run by a consortium of state monopolies that has opted for elite rather than mass market. Prices tend to align to satellite in the absence of competition! Black Fibres installed
along roads, pylons etc. remain unused because of monopoly regulation! 27 Many systemic factors: Electricity, import duties, skills, disease, protectionist policies, conflict, corruption. Africa ~ 3x lower penetration than any other region huge potential market Huge growth
28 http://www.internetworldstats.com/ Host monitored in 50 of 60 countries (98.7% pop) ~130 hosts monitored in Africa Cannot find hosts in Chad, Comoros, Eq. Guinea, Sao Tome, Somalia Yellow only 1 host (so could be anomalous, e.g. Libya) PingER: African coverage Need help for contacts: ([email protected])
Only 1 host Hosts monitored/beacons 29 Conclusions: The bad Poor performance affects data transfer, multi-media, VoIP, IT development & country performance / development DD exists between regions & countries, rural vs cities, poor vs rich, old vs young Decreasing use of satellites, expensive, but still needed for many remote countries in Africa and C. Asia Last mile problems, and network fragility Current providers (cable and satellite) have a lot to loose Many of these have close links to regulators and governments (e.g. over 50% of ISPs in Africa are government controlled)
Africa worst by all measures (throughput, loss, jitter, DOI, international bandwidth, users, costs ) and falling further behind. 30 The way we develop here in Africa will be different from the way the big nations developed. They grew up with computers. We are growing up with mobile phones. - Fritz Ekwoge Conclusions: There is Hope World cup: international fibre access + competition
LEOS Leapfrog last mile fixed wire with wireless Cheaper end points: OLTP, net computer, smart-phones Banding together of universities => leverage influence & get deals => NRENs => IXPsUsers E.g. Ubuntunet, Bandwidth Initiative Standards: Harmonization of regulations country to country Cheaper cell phone, cant afford multiple technologies & frequencies Regulatory regimes becoming: more open/transparent, less resistant to change 31 Conclusions: PingER Measures Internet performance non subjective, relatively easy/quick to measure (c.f. ITU etc methods)
So monthly, daily updates correlates strongly with economic/technical/development indices Increase coverage of monitoring to understand Internet performance Gives baselines, trends, effect of improvements Relative comparisons countries, regions, sites Lot of granularity: within countries, monthly, daily Reasonable coverage for Africa (48 of 53 countries) 32 IHY Sites & PingER Google maps Zoom, pan etc. IHY coordinates
from Monique Petitdidier (CNRS) SIDs from Deborah Scherrer (Stanford) To come: Barbara Thompson (NASA) www.slac.stanford.edu/comp/net/wan-mon/viper/ihy_googlemap.htm 33 PingER monitoring of events Effect of Mediterranean fibre cuts Dec 2008 Seconds
Kbits/s confluence.slac.stanford.edu/dis play/IEPM/Effects+of+Mediterran ean+Fibre+Cuts+December+200 8 0:00am 22 Dec 8:30am 19 Dec RTT SLAC to Oman Contour map of performance Dec 2008 for hosts In countries affected by fibre cut 34
More Information Thanks: Incentive: ICFA/SCIC, Monique Petitdidier, ICTP, ITU Funding: DoE/SLAC/HEP, Pakistan HEC Effort: SLAC, ICTP (Trieste), FNAL, Georgia Tech, administrators at over 40 monitoring sites ITU/WIS Report 2006 & 2007 (or Google: WSIS Report 2007) www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/worldinformationsociety/2007/report.html www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2009/index.html Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa www.arp.harvard.edu/AfricaHigherEducation/Online.html PingER www-iepm.slac.stanford.edu/pinger, sdu.ictp.it/pinger/africa.html www.slac.stanford.edu/xorg/icfa/icfa-net-paper-jan09/ Global Information watch: www.giswatch.org
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