Socrates and Plato Socrates uses reason to find moral reality Same rationalist assumptions One, unchanging, knowable, rational, real Plus: Knowledge virtue Death at the hands of democracy Becomes the hero of Plato's dialogues Dies ignorant--method doubt; no solution Hard to prove a contradiction from moral premises Plato combines with Parmenides rationalism
Ultimate reality is value/meaning (definition) Intellectual reality = idealism (optimism and ideas) Define: Philosophy=Semantics Basis of all knowledge Needed to know the truth of sentences Because needed to know meaning? Vicious circle--must be some we learn without In fact most are learned without definitions But important to logic (Geometry) Allows logical analysis, reveals structure of
arguments Reality=concepts, meanings, Ideos, Forms One, unchanging, knowable, rational=real Sense experience is unreal, belief, change etc. Working with Definitions Rules to ensure we get the right kind No lists, vagueness, circularity (synonym) Must give an analysis: species and difference Biology model of scientific knowledge (classification) No hearsay (only expert insight) & test by reason
Real v nominal definitions Things real naturewhat makes it of that kind Shared in things of that type. Result: Theory of Forms The ultimate reality (metaphysics); distinguishes knowledge from belief, meaning/logic, value Questions Give a formal analysis of the Analects argument for the social-political importance of rectifying names .
Is it valid? Is it sound? Explain why or why not. Coffee Tutorial today at 1 pm Difficulty: Famous Analogies Cave: sensible appearance v reality C.f. taking hallucinatory drugs Meditation or rational insight Analogy: shadow/object as object/form Equal difficulty in getting you to accept them When you "see" them, you will need no more convincing
The character of the object determines your knowledge Line Analogy: Links metaphysics and epistemology Knowability depends on nature of object (Parmenides) Rival view: true belief plus an account (the modern analysis) X knows that P =df. P is true X believes that P X has justification for believing that P
The Sun Analogy Rule for identification of forms Logic: there must be a form of forms More real than the forms The form of the good: of all value Form of the truth/beauty/good Mystical Result:Absolute one/being No mental grasp It would blind us (our intuition)
But necessarily there (or nothing exists) Key Political Doctrines The Republic a political plan Justice in political structure =in individual Rule of the correct rulerintellect The Philosopher King Anti-democratic and manipulative
Education and classes Social ranks: intellectual, spirited, body-like End Plato & Greek Rationalism Ancient Chinese idealism next! On To China! Same approximate time Axial age hypothesis because of lack of contact Socrates, Buddha, Confucius
Contrast First philosopher the most famous Starts out with politics and ethics Geography and Shang Culture Navigation v landlocked agriculture Geometry v cycles Chinas Uniqueness Non-Indic religious base No immortal soul but spirit = No creation God or anthropomorphism Oldest continuous religionancestor veneration
Political organization first Shang society and Zhou nature Social religion and Emperor on High Oracle bones and conquest Beginning of deliberate history Mandate of tiannature:sky Duke of Zhou political justification Moral divine right of kings With right to revolution built in Mandate/duty to rule/care for
Society in nature Lost when fails or loses devirtuosity Mandate goes to another Revolution and success (rain, luck, etc.) sign of tians selection Confucius: Traditional political view Controversy: education first Dreams of Duke of Zhou
tiannature:sky names ( mingdestiny) the ruler Moral merit not pure religion Is God? (Like Western "divine right of kings") was anthropomorphic ancestor Place of dead spirits above Tian also above, but only destins things Tiannature:sky: Natural Process?
Organic" or anthropological authority (?) Constant patterns Corrupting power of evil Confucius minimally religious but starts a philosophical process Agnostic about spirits and afterlife Little talk about tiannature:sky (??) Natural moral social/political hierarchy-not hereditary Purpose Of Hierarchical Society
Naturalist & realist We could add premises (evolution) Moral education, not institutions No legislature, bureaus or courts Education by models Like father in the family Ruler responsible for our moral character No law Motivation and linguistic arguments Penal Codes: Publish Punishments
Not a list of general commands (universal sentences creating legal duties) Thought of as naming the punishments Then specifying when to use them Texts call them xingpunishments Confucius' Argument Against Law Lead them with zhengcoercion, order them with xingpunishment, the people will avoid [wrongdoing?] but will have no
shame. Lead them with devirtuosity and order them with liritual and they will have shame and learn to fit in. (2:3) Psychological and Interpretive Grounds Psychological argument: Human sociability and weak selfishness li ritual exercises the natural impulse to conform to social expectations
Interpretive argument: public codes invite disputation and encourage people to be argumentative "In litigation, I am as the others are, but the point is to eliminate litigation" Human Nature Natural social animals that have traditions:
Language and ritual liritual Conventions = df. Shared coordination patterns that persist because cooperation is more important than alternative actions Confucius' ethics seem conventional liritual for training morality Transmitter not a creator Philosophical Content: zheng-mingrectify names Father-ruler example: conflict of rules Abortion case
Never kill an innocent person A fetus is an innocent person A fetus is not yet a person Never kill a fetus Intuition about instance helps us rectify names Judgment about abortion
No known resistance to dolutegravir or rilpivirine. SWORD 1 and 2. Screening Phase INSTI, PI, or NNRTI + 2 NRTIs. Switched to dolutegravir / rilpivirine (n=513) Continued baseline regimen (n=511) HIV RNA <50 for . 6 months. Day 1.
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