Respiratory Protection 1 Terminal Learning Objective Upon completion of this module, participants will understand the need for, and the parts of, an effective Respiratory Protection Program including the selection, use, maintenance, and care of respirators.
2 Enabling Learning Objectives In this module, we will: Review the requirements of respirator use List and discuss the elements of an effective Respiratory Protection Program Define and describe the types of respirators in use today 3
Enabling Learning Objectives In this module, we will: Explain proper respirator selection, use, maintenance, and care Discuss the elements of medical evaluation, training, and recordkeeping 4
Permissable Practices Control methods for contaminated atmospheres Engineering controls - (enclosures, confinement of operations, ventilation, or substitution of less toxic materials) Administrative controls / work practices - (training, policies, written procedures, controlled access areas) Personal Protective Equipment 5
Permissable Practices (continued) Employer shall provide respirators, when necessary, which are applicable and suitable for the purpose intended Employer shall be responsible for establishment and maintenance of a respirator program. 6 Tight -Fitting Coverings
Quarter Mask Half Mask Full Facepiece Mouthpiece/Nose Clamp (no fit test required)
Full Body Suit 8 Filter A component used in respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols from the inspired air. Also called air purifying element or a particulate filter.
9 Canister or Cartridge A container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or combination of these items, which removes specific contaminants from the air passed through the container. 10 Negative Pressure Respirator
A respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator. 11 Filtering Facepiece (Dust Mask) A negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium.
12 Air-Purifying Respirator (APR) A respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the airpurifying element. 13
Positive-Pressure Respirator A respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator. 14 Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR)
An air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering. 15 Atmosphere-Supplying Respirator A respirator that supplies the user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere Includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units
16 Classes of Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators Continuous Flow - Provides a continuous flow of breathing air to the respiratory inlet covering Demand - Admits breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside the facepiece by inhalation Positive-Pressure / Pressure-Demand - Admits breathing air to the
facepiece when the air pressure inside the facepiece is reduced by inhalation 17 Supplied Air Respirator (SAR) An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user. Also called airline respirator. 18
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user. 19 Escape-Only Respirator
A respirator intended to be used only for emergency exit. 20 Respirator Program Employers shall: develop a written program with worksite-specific procedures when respirators are necessary or required by the employer update the program as necessary to reflect changes in workplace conditions that affect respirator use
designate a program administrator who is qualified by appropriate training or experience to administer or oversee the program and conduct the required program evaluations provide respirators, training, and medical evaluations at no cost to the employee 21 Respirator Program (contd) Where Respirator Use is Not Required
An employer may provide respirators at employees request or permit employees to use their own respirators if such use in itself will not create a hazard If voluntary use is permissible, employer shall provide users with the information necessary for proper use and maintenance An employer shall establish and implement those elements of a written program necessary to ensure that employee is medically able to use the respirator and that it is cleaned, stored, and maintained so it does not present a health hazard to the user
22 Respirator Program Elements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
8. Selection Medical evaluation Fit testing Use Maintenance and care Breathing air quality and use Training on respiratory hazards and the use of respirators Program evaluation
23 Selection of Respirators An employer must select and provide an appropriate respirator based on the respiratory hazards to which the worker is exposed and workplace and user factors that affect respirator performance and reliability. 24
Selection of Respirators (contd) Select a NIOSH certified respirator that shall be used in compliance with the conditions of its certification Identify and evaluate the respiratory hazards in the workplace, including a reasonable estimate of employee exposures and identification of the contaminants chemical state and physical form 25 Selection of Respirators (contd)
Where exposure cannot be identified or reasonably estimated, the atmosphere shall be considered Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Select respirators from a sufficient number of models and sizes so that the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the user 26 Respirators for IDLH Atmospheres
Full-Facepiece Pressure Demand SCBA certified by NIOSH for a minimum service life of 30 minutes Combination Full-Facepiece Pressure Demand SAR with auxiliary self contained air supply
27 Oxygen-Deficient Atmosphere An atmosphere with an oxygen concentration below 19.5% All oxygen-deficient atmospheres are considered IDLH 28 Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH)
An atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individuals ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. 29 Respirators for Atmospheres Not IDLH Gases and Vapors
Atmosphere-supplying respirator (SCBA or SAR), or Air-purifying respirator That is equipped with an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) certified by NIOSH for the contaminant; or if there is no ESLI appropriate for conditions in the workplace, employer implements a change schedule for canisters and cartridges based on objective information or data that will ensure that they are changed before the end of their service life 30
Respirators for Atmospheres Not IDLH Particulates Atmosphere-supplying respirator (SCBA or SAR), or Air-purifying respirator equipped with HEPA filters certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR Part 11 or with filters certified for particulates under 42 CFR Part 84 31
Air-Purifying Particulate Filters Nine classes: three levels of filter efficiency, each with three categories of resistance to degradation due to the presence of oil aerosols 100: 99.97% efficient, .3 microns in diameter 99:
99% efficient 95: 95% efficient N - Not resistant to oil R - Resistant to oil (8 hours) P - oil Proof
32 Air-Purifying Particulate Filters (contd) Nine classes: three levels of filter efficiency, each with three categories of resistance to degradation due to the presence of oil aerosols N100 N99 N95
R100 R99 R95 P100 P99 P95 33
Selection and Use If no oil particles are present, use any series (N, R, or P) If oil particles are present, use only R or P series Select filter efficiency based on contaminant (100, 99, or 95) Follow the respirator filter manufacturers service-time-limit recommendations 34 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)
Filters This is a filter that is at least 99.97% efficient in removing particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter. Equivalent particulate filters are the N100, R100, and P100 filters. 35 Physician or Other Licensed Health
Care Professional (PLHCP) An individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him/her to independently provide, or be delegated the responsibility to provide, some or all of the health care services recommended to be included in a respiratory protection program. 36 Medical Evaluation Procedures
Employers: shall provide a medical evaluation to determine employees ability to use a respirator, before fit testing and used in the work environment shall identify a PLHCP to perform medical evaluations using a medical questionnaire or an initial medical examination that obtains the same information 37 Additional Medical Evaluations
The employer shall provide additional medical evaluations if: An employee reports medical signs or symptoms related to the ability to use a respirator A PLHCP, supervisor, or program administrator informs the employer that an employee needs to be re-evaluated 38 Additional Medical Evaluations The employer shall provide additional medical evaluations if:
Information from the respirator program, including observations made during fit testing and program evaluation, indicates a need Change occurs in workplace conditions that may substantially increase the physiological burden on an employee 39 Fit Testing Before an employee uses any respirator with a negative or positive-pressure tight-fitting facepiece, the employee should be fit tested with the same
make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. 40 Qualitative Fit Test (QLFT) A pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the individuals response to the test agent. There are 4 Qualitative Fit Test Protocols: Iso-amyl Alcohol (Banana Oil Saccharine
Bitrex Irritant Smoke 41 Quantitative Fit Test (QNFT) An assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator. There are 4 Quantitative Fit Test Protocols: Generated Aerosol Quantitative Fit Testing Protocol
Ambient Aerosol Condensation Nuclei Counter (Portacount) Controlled Negative Pressure Controlled Negative Pressure REDON 42 Fit Testing (contd) Employees using tight-fitting facepiece respirators shall pass an appropriate qualitative fit test (QLFT) or quantitative fit test (QNFT): prior to initial use,
whenever a different respirator facepiece (size, style, model or make) is used, and at least annually thereafter 43 Fit Testing (contd) Employers shall conduct an additional fit test whenever: the employee reports, or the employer, PLHCP, supervisor, or program administrator makes visual
observations of changes in the employees physical condition (e.g., facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or obvious change in body weight) that could affect respirator fit 44 Use of Respirators Facepiece Seal Protection Respirators with tight-fitting facepieces shall not be worn by employees who have facial hair or any condition that interferes with the face-tofacepiece seal or valve function
Corrective glasses or goggles or other PPE shall not be worn in a manner that interferes with the face-to-facepiece seal Employees wearing tight-fitting respirators shall perform a user seal check each time they put on the respirator 45 User Seal Check An action conducted by the respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face.
Positive Pressure Check Negative Pressure Check 46 Use of Respirators Continuing Respirator Effectiveness Maintain appropriate surveillance of work area conditions and degree of
exposure or stress; re-evaluate the respirators effectiveness when it may be affected by any changes Employees shall leave the respirator use area: to wash their faces and respirator facepieces as necessary if they detect vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in breathing resistance, or leakage of the facepiece to replace the respirator or filter, cartridge, or canister 47
Use of Respirators Continuing Respirator Effectiveness If employee detects vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in breathing resistance, or leakage of the facepiece, employer should replace or repair the respirator before allowing employee to return to the work area Replace it! 48
Maintenance and Care Provide each user with a respirator that is clean, sanitary and in good working order Clean and disinfect at the following intervals: as often as necessary when issued for exclusive use one employee before being worn by different individuals when issued to more than one employee after each use for emergency respirators and those used in fit testing and training
49 Breathing Air Quality and Use Employers must provide employees using atmosphere supplying respirators (supplied - air and SCBA) with breathing gases of high purity. 50 Breathing Air Quality and Use
Compressed breathing air must meet at least the requirements for Grade D breathing air described in ANSI/CGA G-7.1-1989: Oxygen content (v/v) of 19.5 - 23.5% Hydrocarbon (condensed) content of 5 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) of air or less CO content of 10 parts per million (ppm) or less CO2 content of 1,000 ppm or less Lack of noticeable odor 51
Breathing Air Quality and Use When cylinders are used to provide breathing air: Cylinders must be tested and maintained in accordance with Shipping Container Specification Regulation of Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 180) Cylinders must have a certificate of analysis from the supplier stating that the air meets the requirements of Grade D breathing
air. 52 Breathing Air Quality and Use When compressors are used to provide breathing air they must be constructed and situated so as to: Prevent entry of contaminated air; Minimize moisture content; Have suitable in-line air-purifying sorbent beds and filters;
Have a tag containing the most recent change date for the filters and sorbent beds. 53 Breathing Air Quality and Use For compressors that are not oil lubricated, ensure carbon monoxide levels do not exceed 10 ppm. For compressors that are oil lubricated, the employer shall use high temperature or carbon monoxide alarms or both. If only using high
temperature alarms, then the air must be tested to ensure carbon monoxide levels do not exceed 10 ppm. 54 Breathing Air Quality and Use All breathing air couplings shall be incompatible with outlets for nonrespirable worksite air or other gas systems. 55
Identification of filters, cartridges, and canisters All filters, cartridges and canisters used in the workplace must be labeled and color coded with the NIOSH approval label The label must not be removed and must remain legible 56 Training and Information
Employers must provide effective training to employees who are required to use respirators. Training must be comprehensive, understandable, and recur annually, and more often if necessary. 57 Training and Information Employees must be able to demonstrate knowledge of: why the respirator is necessary and how improper fit, use, or
maintenance can compromise its protective effect limitations and capabilities of the respirator effective use in emergency situations 58 Training and Information Employees must be able to demonstrate knowledge of: how to inspect, put on and remove, use and check the seals maintenance and storage
recognition of medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent effective use 59 Training and Information (contd) Training shall be provided prior to use Retraining shall be given annually, and when: changes in the workplace or type of respirator render previous training obsolete
there are inadequacies in the employees knowledge or use any other situation arises in which retraining appears necessary 60 Program Evaluation Shall conduct evaluations of the workplace as necessary to ensure effective implementation of the program Shall regularly consult employees required to use respirators to assess their views on program effectiveness and to identify and correct any
problems 61 Program Evaluation Factors to be assessed include, but are not limited to: respirator fit (including effect on workplace performance) appropriate selection proper use proper maintenance
62 Recordkeeping Records of medical evaluations shall be for duration of employment plus 30 years and made available to employees and employee representatives A record of fit tests shall be established and retained until the next fit test is administered 63
Recordkeeping A written copy of the current respiratory protection program shall be retained Written materials to be retained should be made available upon request to affected employees, employee representatives, and regulatory agencies. 64 Review
In this module, we: Listed and discussed the elements of an effective Respiratory Protection Program Defined and described the types of respirators in use today Explained proper respirator selection, use, maintenance, and care
Discussed the elements of medical evaluation, training, and recordkeeping 65 Questions?
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