Resiliency: A Key to Success - Grand Valley State University
Building Resiliency and Therapeutic Recreation: A Natural Fit Dr. Teresa M. Beck PhD, CTRS ATRA Annual Conference Pittsburgh 2013 What is Resiliency? Ability to bounce back or cope in the face of adversity
Bouncing back from problems and stuff with more power and more smarts (15 year old after a semester of resiliency training) www.resiliency.com/htm/whatisresiliency.htm Background of Resiliency Research Increased interest and research last 30 years Helped frame the study of development
using a strengths model rather than a deficit or problem oriented model Resiliency and invulnerability are not equivalent Resiliency ability to spring back from adversity; it does not mean one cannot be wounded as the term invulnerability implies Background continued Resiliency, once achieved may not always
be present As ones circumstances change, so can ones resiliency Having resiliency includes taking action to address a stressful situation Models of Resiliency Compensatory Model Challenge Model
Protective Factor Compensatory Model Compensatory factor is a variable that neutralizes exposure to risk The compensating factor does not interact with the risk factor, instead it has an independent and direct influence on the
outcome. Figure 1. Compensatory Model Risk (Stress) Compensating Factor (selfesteem) Outcome (Competence) Challenge Model
A stressor (risk factor) is treated as an enhancer of successful adaptation if it is not excessive. Too little stress is not challenging enough, and very high levels of stress render the individual helpless Moderate levels of stress, provide the individual with a challenge, that when overcome, strengthens competence
Challenge Model cont. If the challenge is successfully met, this prepares the individual for the next level of difficulty This has been called inoculation Protective Factor Model
Protective factor is a process that interacts with a risk factor in reducing the probability of a negative outcome Works by moderating the effect of the exposure to risk, and modifying the response to the risk This model is the most widely studied of the resiliency models
Protective Factory Model cont. Protective Factors Caring and Supporting Relationships High Expectations Meaningful Participation Sense of Purpose and Future Social Competence Problem-Solving Skills Appreciation of Role Models Knowledgeable of Resources Programming for Protective
Factors TR Programs inherently provide these factors We as therapists, need to be more aware of these inherent factors and match them to the needs of our clients to facilitate the building of their resiliency Resiliency Wheel
Children and Resiliency
School Connectedness Peer Connectedness Teacher Connectedness Positive Family-School Links Family Connectedness One caring adult outside the family Community Connectedness Religious involvement Helpful and positive thinking skills and attitudes
Social Skills Skills and beliefs related to resourcefulness and adaptivity Emotional Literacy Healthy self esteem: A sense of personal
competence Healthy self-esteem: Self knowledge McGrath and Noble (2008) Youth and Depression When youth become overwhelmed by adversities they face, the result is often depressed thoughts and behavior patterns
Whether young people develop depression or resilience depends largely upon their feelings of powerlessness or capability Feelings of powerlessness can be changed to those of capability 5 building blocks of resilience Building Blocks of Resilience Trust Autonomy Initiative
Industry (working willingly at a task) Identity These 5 building blocks correspond to the 1st 5 developmental levels of life (Erikson, 1985) Paradigm of Resilience Component Definition Building Block
I HAVE I AM I CAN Supports around each individual to Trust promote resilience Encouragement in developing the Autonomy inner strengths of confidence, self- Identity esteem, and responsibility Acquisition of interpersonal and Initiative problem solving skills Industry
Grotberg (1999) Building Resilience in Adults
Make connections Avoid seeing crises as insurmountable problems Accept that change is a part of living Move toward your goals Take decisive actions Look for opportunities for self-discovery Nurture a positive view of yourself Keep things in perspective Maintain a hopeful outlook Take care of yourself American Psychological Association Resiliency and Longevity Lifes best survivors are are resilient, hardy,
cope well with difficulties, and gain strength from adversity Research into the psychology of aging shows that psychologically resilient adults cope well with an aging body When they lose friends or loved ones, they express their feelings in an open and healthy way Longevity cont.
Work is very important to resilient adults they are less likely to retire because they appreciate the benefits of doing important work People who live longer blend life-long learning with working and leisure Events experienced as stressful suppress immune system functions, thereby increasing vulnerability to diseases and illnesses.
Resilient older adults are more stress resistant, less likely to experience frequent anger Resiliency can be developed and increased at any age Caregiver / Survivor Resiliency Some caregivers are more resilient, hardy, and stress-resistant than others. Hold up well under pressure and even gain strength from the difficulties and strains Common factor is they fully embrace the challenge instead of complaining, they immerse themselves in the circumstances to be dealt with and let it change their lives
Caregivers / Survivors Find meaning, purpose, and value in difficult circumstances Humans are born with the ability to be made better by lifes difficulties Accept and embrace what life has handed you Maintain a playful, curious spirit Constantly learn from experience Caregivers / Survivors Enjoy solid self-esteem and selfconfidence
Have good friendships, loving relationships Express feelings honestly Develop open minded empathy Trust intuition Question Authority Deeply resilient people let themselves be transformed by their experiences HOW RESILIENT ARE YOU? Resilience at Work Illinois Bell Telephone (IBT) Project
Landmark study on how people handle stress at work 12 year study funded by Illinois Bell and the National Institute of Mental Followed 450 male and female supervisors, managers and decision makers at IBT through the deregulation of ATT Illinois Bell Telephone Project 1/2 of employees in sample lost their jobs 2/3 of sample broke down in some way
Heart attacks, depressive and anxiety disorders Substance abuse Divorced, separated or acted out violently 1/3 of employee sample was resilient If they stayed at IBT, they rose to the top of the heap If they left, they started companies of their own or accepted strategically important employment in other companies Roots of Resilience
Three resilient attitudes which constitute hardiness Commitment Control Challenge Commitment View work as important Warrants your full attention, imagination and effort Stay involved with events and people around you even when the going gets rough See withdrawal from stressful circumstances as week Sidestep unproductive alienating social
behaviors Control Try to positively influence the outcomes of the changes going on around you Do your best to find solutions to workday problems Determine which situational features are open to change and gracefully accept those outside your control Challenge See change as instrumental in opening up
new, fulfilling pathways for living Face up to stressful changes, try to understand them, learn from them, and solve them Embrace lifes challenges, not deny and avoid them This expresses optimism toward the future rather than the fear of it. Other Hardiness Research The higher your hardiness level, the milder your physiological arousal to stress (as measured by blood pressure, heart rate) Hardiness studied as a predictor of
leadership behavior (role modeling, helping bring out the best in others, etc.) Nurses high in hardiness take fewer sick days and show less depression, anxiety, and burnout. Attitudes Influence Resilience Courage and Motivation Denial and Avoidance If you stop thinking about it, it will go away Dwell on things which one has no control over
Catastrophic Reactions and Striking Out Overreact to change that decreases sense of support Overpersonalize workplace changes Individual Skills and Abilities Insight Independence Creativity Humor Initiative Relationships
Values Orientation Implications for TR Practice TR Treatment approaches Increases independence Increases creativity and initiative Increases social skills and ability to build relationships resulting in social competence Builds self esteem and self confidence Develops problem solving skills
Implications for TR Practice Leisure Education Approaches Meaningful participations Sense of purpose and future Knowledge of resources and community connectedness Values Orientations and insight QUESTIONS? Resources
Fergus, S & Zimmerman, M. (2005). Adolescent resilience: A framework for developing healthy development in the face of risk. Annual Review of Public Health, 26: 399-419. Grotberg, E. (1999). Countering depression with the five building blocks of resilience. Reaching Todays Youth 4(1,
Fall): 66-72 Maddi, S.R. & Khisgaba. (2005). Resilience at work: How to succeed no matter what life throws you. New York: MJF Books. McGrath, H. & Noble, T. (in press). Helping kids BOUNCE BACK through a curriculum-based approach to teaching resilience. The road to resilience. American Psychological Association. www.resiliencycenter.com
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