REPRODUCTI ON IN PLANTS THE PLANT LIFE CYCLE Plants life cycles have two alternating phases known as alternation of generations: 1. 2.
A diploid (2N) phase known as the sporophyte (spore producing plant). A haploid (N) phase known as the gametophyte (gamete producing plant) Mosses and ferns require water to reproduce. Seed plants can reproduce without
water. Reproduction Before Angiosperms Bryophytes & Seedless Vascular Reproduce using spores. Both require water for fertilization (to get sperm to egg). Up until Gymnosperms, all
land plants still required water to get sperm to egg, and they all reproduced using single cells without any real protectionthey were called spores. But with the Gymnosperms new reproductive structures evolved which made them much more successful on the land. These were Pollen and Seeds.
GYMNOSPERM REPRODUCTION Reproduction occurs in the Cones Male cone (pollen cone) pollen
grains Female cone (seed cone) ovules Pollen released into the air Fertilization occurs when the pollen grain lands near an ovule pollen tube forms GYMNOSPERM LIFE CYCLE Dominant Stage
ANGIOSPERM REPRODUCTION Flowers are reproductive organs : composed of four kinds of specialized leaves: 1. Petals 2. Sepals 3. Stamens 4. Carpels (also called Pistils) Petals Brightly colored structure just inside the sepals; attracts insects and other pollinators to a flower.
Sepals Outermost circle of flower parts that encloses a bud before it opens and protects the flower while it is developing. Male Parts of a Flower Stamen Male part of the flower; Made up of the anther and filament Anther Produces pollen containing sperm Filament Supports/Hold ups the anther (thread like part) Female Parts of a Flower Pistil (Carpal) Female
part of the flower; Innermost part of the flower that produces the female gametophyte The pistil is composed of the following structures: 1. Stigma- Sticky portion located at the top of the style where pollen frequently lands 2. Broad base forms an ovary, which contains one or more ovules (contains eggs inside) 3. The diameter of the carpel narrows into a stalk called a style. REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING
PLANTS Complete Flower Has all four organs Incomplete Flower (or Imperfect Flower) Lacks one or more organs Reproduction in Flowers Similar to Gymnosperms Since: 1. Both produce seeds 2. Gametophytes are within the body
of the sporophyte. POLLINATION Pollination Transfer of pollen from the stamen to the pistil. Methods of Pollination: 1. Wind 2. Animals (most are pollinated by animals) Pollination Adaptations That Attract Animals: 1. Nectar 2. Petal Color 3. Scent
TYPES OF POLLINATION Self-Pollination Stigma receives pollen from the same plant. Cross-Pollination Pollen from one plant is carried to the stigma of another plant. -Must be same type of plant. -Allows for exchange of genetic material
FRUITS The (fertilized) ovary develops into the fruit, which can be dry or fleshy. Fruits protect the seeds and aid in dispersal. Dry Examples: Nuts and Grains Fleshy Examples: Oranges, Peaches, Tomatoes, Squash
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS Vegetative Reproduction reproduction of new plants (by mitosis) from horizontal stems, from plantlets, and from underground roots. A strawberry plant (left) produces horizontal
stems (stolons) A spider plant (above) produces plantlets at the tips of elongated stems plantlet reaches soil grows into new plant The bamboo plant (left) has underground roots that send up new
shoots Parasitic plants extract nutrients and water directly from its hosts tissues After a (Cuscuta) Dodder attaches itself to a plant, it wraps itself around it. If the host contains food beneficial to dodder, the dodder produces haustoria that insert themselves into the vascular system of the host. The original root of the dodder in the soil then dies. The dodder can grow and attach itself to multiple plants.
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