ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook DOC 9718 Fifth edition Presented by: Loftur Jnasson ICAO ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Organization of the Handbook Nine Chapters: 1 Introduction 2 Objectives and purpose of the Handbook 3 The International Telecommunication Union 4 The ITU Regulatory Framework 5 ICAO involvement in Frequency and Spectrum 6 Overview of the Spectrum Management Process 7 Statement of Frequency Allocations and ICAO Policy 8 Future Spectrum Requirement 9 Interference protection considerations ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Organization of the Handbook (2) Eight Attachments: A Definitions and Terms B Acronyms and Abbreviations C The Regulation of Radio in aircraft D Review and update (of the Handbook) E Strategy for establishing and promoting the ICAO Position for ITU World Radiocommunication
Conferences F ICAO position for the ITU WRC-12 G Technical Information and Frequency Sharing criteria H ITU Resolutions and Recommendations ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 1 - Introduction Introduces the Handbook and highlights: RF spectrum is a scarce natural resource and must be available to the States and radio services Competition between users for spectrum RF spectrum allocations managed by the ITU Aeronautical spectrum is for safety and efficiency RF congestion in spectrum utilization International competition for spectrum allocations Various processes on spectrum allocations ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 2 Objectives and purposes ITU is the specialized agency of the United Nations on all telecommunication matters ICAO is the specialized agency of the United Nations on
aeronautical matters ICAO presents the internationally agreed aeronautical requirements (ICAO position) for spectrum to ITU -WRCs ICAO position to be used by aeronautical authorities on a national level ICAO position is developed by the Air Navigation Commission ICAO position and policy statements are approved by Council ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 3 the International Telecommunication Union The ITU is the specialized agency of the United Nations on all Telecommunication matters. Other Organizations such as ICAO are not barred from any kind of work on (aeronautical) telecommunications, including Standardization ITU develops the Radio Regulations at World Radiocommunication Conferences.
Radio Regulations are treaty document and can only be modified at WRCs ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 3 the International Telecommunication Union (2) National Radio Regulatory authorities control the mechanism for developing national proposals to ITU Conferences Such proposals take into account the interests of all users of spectrum, including aeronautical interests The Radio Regulations also include a number of administrative provisions (e.g. on licensing) Technical work in ITU takes place in the Radiocommunication Study Groups Regional positions for WRCs are developed by the Regional Telecommunication organizations. ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 3
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 C 20 40 B 60 80 100
120 140 160 180 170 170 the International Telecommunication Union (3) A 75 75 C ITE L 60 60 R E G IO N 1 C EPT R E G IO N 2 40
RC C 40 A SM G 30 20 0 APT A TU C ITE L 20 30 20 0 20 30 30 40 40 R E G IO N 3
R E G IO N 3 160 140 120 B 100 80 60 40 20 A 0 20 40 C o v e r a g e o f r e g io n s b y r e g io n a l t e le c o m m u n ic a ti o n o r g a n iz a t io n s a p p r o x im a te ly 60 80 100
120 140 160 180 170 170 60 C 60 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 4 the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services ITU Radio Regulations: Spectrum allocations Registration of frequency assignments Special (administrative) provisions Frequencies for aviation are for safety -Spectrum allocations to Services and to each of the three ITU Regions National or sub-Regional allocations are made through footnotes [to the table of allocations]
Use of HF spectrum is regulated in Appendix 27 to the Radio Regulations R a d io R e g u la tio n s T a b le o f F r e q u e n c y A llo c a t io n s R a d io c o m m u n ic a tio n s s e r v ic e s Overview of services to which spectrum has been allocated S ta n d a rd fre q u e n c y R a d io a s tro n o m y M e t e o r o lo g ic a l a id s A m a te u r S p ace re s e a rc h E a rth e x p lo r a t io n S F
s a t e llit e R A s a t e llit e M A s a t e llit e A m a te u r s a t e llit e S R s a t e llite E E s a t e llit e B ro a d c a s t F ix e d S pa ce o p e r a tio n s F ix e d s a t e llit e In te rs a te llite F ix e d a n d b ro a d c a s t s e r v ic e s
B ro a d c a s t s a te llite M o b ile s e rv ic e s M o b ile P o rt o p e r a t io n s A e ro n a u tic a l Lan d M a r itim e G M D S S S p e c ia liz e d s e r v ic e s S h ip m ove m en t A e ro (R ) A e ro (O R ) M o b i le - s a t e llit e M M sat
L M sat A eM sa t A e ro M (R ) s a t A e ro M (O R ) s a t R a d io d e t e r m in a t io n R a d io lo c a t io n R a d io d e t e r m in a t io n s a t e llit e R L sat R a d io n a v ig a t io n R N sat A e ro R N sat M a ritim e R N M a ri R N sat A ero R N R a d io d e t e r m in a tio n
s e r v ic e s Chapter 4 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services (3) Aeronautical Communications -Allocations to the Aeronautical Mobile (R) Service: -2.8 30 MHz (HF bands; regulated under Appendix 27) -117.975 137 MHz -112 117.975 MHz, 960 1164 MHz (shared with the Aeronautical Radionavigation Service) -5091 5150 MHz (shared with ARNS , AMS and AMT) -Appendix 27 to the Radio Regulations contains detailed provisions on the use and coordination of HF frequencies Chapter 4 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services (4) Allocations for use by radionavigation have been made to the -Radionavigation Service -Radionavigation-satellite Service -Aeronautical Radionavigation Service Special provisions require States to remove interference from radionavigation services Provisions for the identification of radio navigation systems (e.g. The Morse code on ILS) are contained in the Radio
Regulations Chapter 4 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services (5) Relation of ITU provisions with ICAO SARPs The ITU Radio Regulations contain the internationally agreed policies on the use of RF spectrum by ALL radio services ICAO SARPs that affect the use of RF spectrum must comply with these policies Radio Regulations and SARPs form a complimentary set of provisions on the use of RF spectrum by aviation Chapter 4 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services (6)
Frequency coordination and registration In principle, coordination of frequency assignments between States to be performed by ITU In practice, the coordination of frequency assignments for aviation is performed by ICAO (Regional Offices) for: NDB ILS, VOR, DME, GBAS VHF COM ICAO can assist in pre-coordination of HF frequency assignments Chapter 4 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services (7) ITU Standards and ITU Recommendations ITU does not develop standards for aeronautical radio systems ITU develops ITU-R Recommendations which may affect the use of aeronautical systems In most cases, ITU-R Recommendations address aspects on sharing of frequency spectrum (co-frequency and adjacent frequency) Chapter 4 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook
the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services (8) Radio equipment in aircraft (Attachment C to the Handbook) needs to comply with: Telecommunication regulations: Operate in properly allocated aeronautical frequency bands Comply with technical provisions on spurious emission Comply with relevant ITU-R Recommendations Operate in accordance with a radio station license Aeronautical regulations Operators and station license recognized by States Equipment covered by airworthiness certification Comply with provisions of Annex 10 Chapter 4 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook the ITU Regulatory Framework for aeronautical radio services (9) National regulations National authorities issue radio station licence License is for the installation and use of radio equipment and is recognized by all ICAO contracting States Airworthiness approval required Airworthiness approval To secure compatibility with other radio equipment
and electronic systems on board an aircraft Technical Standing Order Minimum Performance Specifications ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 5 ICAO involvement in frequency planning ICAO develops Standards for communication and navigation systems (Article 37 of the ICAO Convention) Equipment needs to be globally interoperable and requires globally available spectrum allocations ICAO coordinates aeronautical input on spectrum issues to ITU conferences Input from ICAO addresses issues such as: Protection of ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) Interference levels Resolution of interference Frequency planning criteria for aviation ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 5 ICAO involvement in frequency planning (2) ICAO activities on spectrum planning are at: Global level (ACP WG F): Develops ICAO policy statements; these are to be used in all discussions affecting aeronautical spectrum
ICAO position for ITU on specific aeronautical requirements to be discussed at WRCs Regional level: Coordination of ICAO frequency assignment plans Support from individual ICAO contracting States is essential ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 6 Overview of the spectrum management process Regulatory domain ITU Radio Regulations Technical domain: ITU-R Recommendations Licensing domain: Radio station licence (issued by States) Registration domain: ITU international Frequency list ICAO frequency lists ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 6 Overview of the spectrum management process (2) Elements of the technical domain: -Allocation planning World wide or Regional allocations Primary or secondary allocations
Footnote allocations Service sharing ITU-R Recommendations Frequency planning ITU frequency assignment plans ICAO frequency assignment plans ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 6 Overview of the spectrum management process (3) State of the art and spectrum management: Recent advances through increased use of computer technology in frequency assignment planning New technology introduces system improvements resulting in more efficient use of spectrum (e.g. 8.33 kHz channel spacing) ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 6 Overview of the spectrum management process (4) Spectrum management in the future: Greater demand for spectrum expected from all radio services Spectrum planning focuses on increased sharing of spectrum between services Spectrum planning focuses on releasing spectrum not used or not efficiently used In some countries spectrum pricing is being proposed Progressive introduction of more spectrum efficient systems
ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation, technical details and ICAO policy -Section 7-I List of frequency bands for aviation -Section 7-II Civil aviation frequency allocations -Section 7-III Other provisions in the Radio Regulations -Section 7-IV ITU Resolutions and Recommendations ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation, technical details and ICAO policy (2) Section 7-I: List of frequency bands in use for civil aviation Band Service Aviation use Section 7-II page no. *90110 kHz RNS LORAN-C
328.6335.4 MHz ARNS ILS glide path 7-69 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation, technical details and ICAO policy (3) 7 detailed graphical presentations of the aeronautical frequency bands ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation, technical details and ICAO policy (4) Section 7-II Civil aviation frequency allocations: Primary allocation Has priority over a secondary allocation Secondary allocation Shall not cause harmful interference to a primary allocation and must accept interference from a primary allocation at any time ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation, technical details and ICAO policy (5) Frequency distribution to
French English Spanish Services Attribution (attribuer) Allocation (to allocate) Atribucion (atribuir) Areas Allotissement (allotir) Allotment (to allot) Adjudicacin (adjudicar) Stations Assignation
(assigner) Assignment (to assign) Assignations (asignar) Frequencies are: Allocated to Services (Radio Regulations) Allotted to areas (Radio Regulations; allotment plans) Assigned to [radio] stations (by States, after international coordination is completed) ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation, technical details and ICAO policy (6) Section 7-II Civil aviation frequency allocations, continued Layout in Handbook for details on frequency allocations ITU provisions relevant to the allocation ITU provisions relevant to the allocation ICAO policy statements (established by Council) Description of aeronautical use Commentary (background information) Note that in Revision 5 of the Handbook, the below has been moved to Appendix G: Reference material (ICAO, ITU, Industry Standards (RTCA, EUROCAE) Interference from non-aeronautical sources (if available)
ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation, technical details and ICAO policy (7) MHz 108117.975 Example: Frequency allocation for the band 108 -117.975 MHz as per ITU Radio Regulations Allocation to Services Region 1 108117.975 Region 2 Region 3 AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION 5.197 5.197A Footnotes: 5.197 Additional allocation: in Pakistan and the Syrian Arab Republic, the band 108111.975 MHz is also allocated to the mobile service on a secondary basis, subject to agreement obtained under No. 9.21. In order to ensure that harmful interference is not caused to stations of the aeronautical radionavigation service, stations of the mobile service shall not be introduced in the band until it is no longer required for the aeronautical radionavigation service by any administration which may be identified in the application of the procedures invoked under No. 9.21.
5.197A Additional allocation: the band 108-117.975 MHz is also allocated on a primary basis to the aeronautical mobile (R) service, limited to systems operating in accordance with recognized international aeronautical standards. Such use shall be in accordance with Resolution 413 (Rev. WRC-07). The use of the band 108-112 MHz by the aeronautical mobile (R) service shall be limited to systems composed of ground-based transmitters and associated receivers that provide navigational information in support of air navigation functions in accordance with recognized international aeronautical standards. (WRC-07) ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation, technical details and ICAO policy (8) ICAO policy statement as approved by Council for the band: 108 117.975 MHz ICAO POLICY No change to the current allocation to the aeronautical radionavigation service and the aeronautical mobile (route) service (AM(R)S). Deletion of Footnote 5.197. Ensure conformity with ITU-R Recommendation SM.1009 regarding compatibility with FM broadcast services in the band 87.5108 MHz and ILS/VOR and with ITU-R Recommendation M.1841 for GBAS. Support studies associated with ITU-R Resolution 413 in order to facilitate the use of the frequency band by AM(R)S systems that operate in accordance with international standards. ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation,
technical details and ICAO policy (9) Aviation use: Description of the systems (ILS, VOR, GBAS and VDL Mode 4) using the band 108 117.975 MHz Commentary: Background information on the use of the band 108 117.975 MHz by aviation. 1 0 8 .0 0 3 3 5 .4 3 3 4 .8 5 3 3 5 .0 0 3 3 4 .7 0 3 3 4 .5 5 1 1 1 .7 0 11 1 .7 5 11 1 .9 0 11 1 .9 5 1 2 0 .0 0 3 3 4 .2 5 3 3 4 .4 0 3 3 4 .1 0
3 2 9 .4 5 3 2 9 .3 0 3 2 9 .1 5 1 0 8 .5 0 1 0 8 .5 5 1 0 8 .3 0 1 0 8 .3 5 1 0 8 .1 0 1 0 8 .1 5 3 2 8 .6 ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation, technical details and ICAO policy (10) M Hz ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation, technical details and ICAO policy (11) Additional Technical References in Attachment G: References to relevant material in: ICAO Annex 10 (specifications for ILS, VOR, GBAS and VDL Mode 4) RTCA and EUROCAE standards for airborne equipment ARINC Characteristics ITU-R Recommendations
References to information specific to interference from FM broadcasting stations ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 7 - Statement of frequency allocation, technical details and ICAO policy (12) Section 7-III; Radio Regulations and other material: ITU Constitution and Convention ICAO participates as an observer in an advisory capacity Radio Regulations Administrative provisions No. 3.3 incorporate technical means to reduce interference No. 4.4 States can use frequencies in a manner that does not comply with the Radio Regulations However, such use must protect stations which operate in compliance with the Radio Regulations No. 4.10 States recognize the safety aspects of radionavigation No. 15.8 Special consideration to be given to avoid interference on distress and safety services Chapter V Section III Formation of call signs No. 44.1 Order of priority of communications ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 8 Future Spectrum Requirements The Handbook identifies future spectrum requirements for: GNSS augmentation GBAS SBAS LAAS/WAAS
Synthetic vision HF data link VDL Mode 4 ADS-B Future Communication Systems ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 9 Interference protection considerations Interference issues: Regulatory aspects Management and control of interference Assessment of protection of aeronautical services
Some special cases General protection limits for aeronautical services ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 9 Interference protection considerations (2) Regulatory aspects: Harmful interference (RR1.169) Interference which endangers the functioning of a radionavigation service or of other safety services or seriously degrades, obstructs, or repeatedly interrupts a radiocommunication service operating in accordance with Radio Regulations (CS). Safety Service (RR 1.59) Any radiocommunication service used permanently or temporarily for the safeguarding of human life and property. Aviation safety factor 6dB, to be added to the minimum protection level Registration of frequencies Registration provides administrative protection from harmful interference ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 9 Interference protection considerations (3)
Management and control of interference: -International agreement on a regulatory basis ITU Radio Regulations Board -System and equipment standards ICAO SARPs RTCA and EUROCAE specifications ITU-R Recommendations -Licensing of radio services Licensing conditions can assist in prevention and removal of interference -Control and clearance of interference Telecommunication authority within a State ICAO (Regional Office) ITU (Radiocommunication Bureau) ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 9 Interference protection considerations (4) Assessment of protection of aeronautical services: Subject to analysis (e.g. in case of allocation sharing) Based on interference threshold, established by aviation Aviation safety factor (6 dB) Variables to be considered in assessment / analysis Source of interference Frequency separation
Distance separation Receiver susceptibility to interference RF propagation ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 9 Interference protection considerations (5) Some special cases: ISM Harmonic relation between ISM frequencies and aeronautical VHF bands VSAT /SNG These systems use small satellite antennas and can be located anywhere; can cause interference in the near vicinity of aircraft (e.g. if used at airports) ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Chapter 9 Interference protection considerations (6) General protection limits for aeronautical services Use Frequency Band Minimum Signal dB (uV/m)
System Planning Protection Ratio DB Suggested Maximum Level of Interfering Signal DB (uV/m) 37 (1) 15 16 1 Omega 2 NDB 190850 KHz 1014 KHz 3
HF Comms 2.822 MHz 4 ILS Mkr Beacon 74.875.2 MHz 46 (1) 20 20 5 ILS Localizer 108112 MHz 40 (1) 20 14 6 VOR
1 5451 555 MHz 14 GPS 1 5591 610 MHz 160 dBW (3) 137 (2) 15 GLONASS 1 5591 610 MHz 160 dBW (3) 137 (2) 15 406 MHz Limits apply only to intra-system interference; not be used for assessing interference with other systems can
ICAO Radio Frequency Handbook Attachments A Definition and Terms Summary of definitions of terms in the Radio Regulations B Acronyms and abbreviations C Regulation of Radio in aircraft is addressed under Chapter 4 D Review and update (of the Handbook) provides a schedule for updating the Handbook to reflect decisions of WRCs and develop positions for future WRCs E Strategy for establishing and promoting the ICAO position for ITU World Radiocommunication Conferences F ICAO position for WRC-2012 addressed in separate presentation G Technical Information and Frequency Sharing Criteria H ITU Resolutions and Recommendations as contained in the RR END Questions/Comments?
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