# Rates of Change

Key Terms Marginal Fixed Cost Variable Cost Total Cost

Marginal Cost Average Cost Ratio Rate of Change Council for Economic Education Costs When producing a good or a service firms face two types of costs. Fixed Costs are costs that the business incurs whether or not production occurs (e.g., a lease on a building). Variable Costs change with the

amount of output of the good or service (e.g., hiring additional workers) Council for Economic Education Total Cost & Average Cost Total cost (TC) is the sum of fixed (FC) and variable costs (VC). TC=FC+VC Total cost provides business owners an overview of their full costs of production. Average cost (AC) is the firms TC divided by its Quantity of output(Q). AC=TC/Q

Council for Economic Education Marginal Marginal in economics refers to rate of change. If the focus is on revenue, marginal refers to the extra revenue generated from the sale of an extra unit of output. Similarly, if the focus is on cost, then marginal cost refers to the extra cost associated with producing an extra unit of output. Revenue is the income that a firm gets from selling its production. Council for Economic Education

Marginal Cost Marginal Cost (MC) is the cost associated with producing an extra unit of output (Q). MC=TC/ QTC/TC/ Q Q Marginal cost is a rate of change in total cost associated with producing an extra unit of output. Using marginal cost allows a firm to know the amount of additional cost incurred by producing an additional unit of output. Council for Economic Education What is Rate of Change

Rate of change is the ratio between the change in one variable relative to the corresponding change in another variable. Given two points (X1,Y1) and (X2,Y2), rate of change is given by the equation (Y2- Y1) / (X2X1). This equation is also the slope of the line through these two points. The concept of slope is equivalent to rate of change, which is also called marginal in economics. Council for Economic Education

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