Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers

Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers

Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography Biological Psychiatry 42 495-508 Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in Introduction

is there a biological basis for criminality? PET scans radioactive labels on: blood/blood sugars dopamine (neuro-transmitter) gamma ray signals 7-8M ps also MRI and fMRI Mark Souter murderers

PET scans showing hot spots for cognitive activities Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers introduction: problems colourisation v complex errors 'hot spots' same for 'on & 'off' brain actions practiced brain activity declines in that area 'hottest spots' = only for newest tasks? "it seems we should not let the quality of

evidence get in the way of a good story" Banyard and Grayson 2000 Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers A scan of the same subject demonstrating

this skill after it had become familiar Mark Souter PET scan of a subject whilst practicing a new language skill the study: subjects 41 people: 39M 2F charged with murder pleading not guilty by reason of insanity

(NGRI) all referred for PET for legal reasons average age 34.3 Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers the study: subjects medical histories schizophrenia 6 head injury/organic brain damage 23 drug abuse 3

affective disorder 2 epilepsy 2 hyperactivity or learning disorder 3 personality disorder 2 Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers the study: controls 1 for each subject matched for age / sex

schizophrenics with non-murderer schizophrenics all controls screened for mental/physical health Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers the study: the PET process injection with glucose tracer 32 mins on target recognition task

NRGI/controls compared re 14 L&R brain areas 6 cortical: inc prefrontal; parietal; temporal; occipital 8 sub cortical: inc corpus callosum; amygdala; hippocampus Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers Mark Souter

Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers Mark Souter the study: ANOVA statistical comparison ANalysis Of VAriance compares a range of factors results: cortical areas differences in activity in lobes of cerebral cortex cf controls;

parietal & pre-fontal: less activity =? occipital: more activity =? temporal: same =? Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers Mark Souter

results: sub cortical areas less activity in corpus callosum cf controls a sub-cortical area =? cf Sperry results: sub cortical areas imbalance between hemispheres cf controls in; amygdala; hippocampus less activity L / more R thalamus - more activity R / same L handedness made no difference

ethnicity made no difference head injury patients corpus callosum only difference Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers discussion: authors (1) supports previous findings; 1. amygdala (part of limbic system) differences (linked to emotions; lack of

fear) 2. corpus callosum differences linked to lack of long term perspective? cautious about implications Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers discussion: authors (2) results; do not show violence is only biological in origin

do not show NGRIs not responsible for their own actions do no say anything about causes of differences cannot be generalised from NGRIs to other violent offenders cannot be generalised to other types of crime Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers discussion: other issues

imaging methods still being developed pre-scan task no bearing on violent behaviour NGRIs not necessarily charged with violent act cause effect of brain differences unclear Mark Souter Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers

Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers Mark Souter discussion: practical applications diagnosis of criminality? no clear evidence to support this treatment of criminality no clear evidence to support this Raine et al (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers

Mark Souter discussion: summary data unclear differences small cause-effect unknown meaning of differences unknown

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