Quantum Information Related Optics Research @ UBC Physics and ...
Quantum Information Related Optics Research @ UBC Physics and Astronomy Jeff Young et al. Kirk Madison et al. David Jones et al. Department of Physics and Astronomy University of British Columbia Three Principal Areas Optical lattices (Kirk Madison) Simulating complex quantum problems Photonic crystal/quantum dot-based
nonlinear optics (Jeff Young) Towards QED on-a-chip Phase-controlled laser sources (David Jones) Coherent control Quantum materials research with ultra-cold atomic gases Kirk Madison Theme : An ensemble of ultra-cold atoms held in optical potentials can be used to experimentally realize and study certain model Hamiltonians Directions : Realize N-body quantum systems of fundamental interest to condensed matter physics - low dimensional and/or strongly correlated systems - examples
include 1-D chains - (Luttinger liquids and Tonks gas) 2-D and 3-D Hubbard (lattice) models with bosons and/or fermions proof of principle : recent experimental realization of the Bose-Hubbard model Goal : study the behavior of various model Hamiltonians to determine the essential ingredients (terms in H) of new and/or unexplained phenomena - examples include high-Tc superconductivity What is its connection (if any) to the Fermi-Hubbard model? Periodic optical potentials are the analog of ionic crystal potentials - the optical-dipole potential experienced by an atom (AC stark shift) is proportional to the laser intensity
- an intensity standing wave can be made by interfering two monochromatic lasers Intensity = |E1 + E2|2 = I1 + I2 + 2(I1I2)1/2 cos[(k1-k2)r] k2 k1 E2 periodicity d = /2 sin(/2) E1 in this example = , d = /2 d
Designer Potentials: the depth (intensity), position (phase), and periodicity (wave vectors) of the potential can be controlled by changing the properties of the interfering beams the topography can also be changed by adding more beams linear gradients can be added using external fields (gravitational, magnetic) The connection to electronic condensed matter systems is by analogy atom analogous to optical lattice
ionic crystal collisional interaction spatial rotations electron Coulomb interaction in some cases Notable differences: optical lattices possess (almost) perfect crystal order no phonons, no impuries, no dislocations but imperfections can be added in...
the atoms considered here are neutral but mass ~ equivalent to charge d.o.f. magnetic fields The connection to theoretical model systems is more direct proof of principle : recent experimental realization of the Bose-Hubbard model Greiner, Mandel, Esslinger, Haensch, and Bloch Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms, Nature 415, 39 (2002) new and relevant proposals to observe other effects with cold atoms abound Hofstetter, Cirac, Zoller, Demler, and Lukin High-Temperature Superfluidity of Fermionic Atoms in Optical
Lattices, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 220407 (2002) A major contribution that experiments with ultra-cold atomic gases could make is to bridge the gap between models and real materials Integrated (Nonlinear) Optical Circuits Based on highly-evolved silicon-on-insulator and III-V semiconductor wafer processing technology (optical steppers, tight tolerances) High-Q, ultra small volume microcavities defined by lithography and etching (ie. engineerable) Integrate with artificial quantum dots to achieve nonlinear optics at the single photon level
Ideal Design Scenario PC Inside Cavity Bend I/O Coupler Optical Transistor
SOI Sample Geometry 100 fs OPO (200 nm x 450 nm Si channels) Galian Photonics Inc. Nanostructured Microcavity embedded in Single Mode SOI Waveguide Photoresist ~1 m m
Si, 200 nm SiO2 Si substrate 2 m Cowan, Rieger and Young, Optics Express (in press) 3D Microcavities in Waveguides Bandgap of barriers |a> |b>
Photonic crystal tunneling barriers |b> |a> Q~ 250 Add PbSe Quantum Dots to Enhance Nonlinear Susceptibility in Cavity Photoresist ~1 m m
Si, 200 nm SiO2 Si substrate 2 m Soon to be Integrated Murray McCutcheon, in progress Close Up Q~10,000
Greens Function FDTD Minimize Switching Power Using 1D Waveguide + Nonlinear 0D Defect Cavity I () R() T() Lorentzian Bistability (no background)
Q 4000 Power 15 mW Soljacic et al., PRE 66, 055601(R) 2002 Cowan and Young, PRE 68, 46606, 2003 Vmode=0.055 m3 n0, 0.1 & 0.4 Nonlinear Cavity Effect with QDots Q~1200 Transmission (a.u.)
Pumped on resonance Pumped off resonance Cowan, in progress Energy (cm-1) Optical Waveform Synthesis (David Jones) Phase-stabilized fs lasers are used to engineer coherent electric field waveforms at optical (300-600 THz) frequencies with well-defined optical phases Controlling the carrier-envelope phase (CE) CE
Combined with pulse shaping techniques f f f lens f lens
grating grating spatial light modulator (SLM) input pulse shaped pulse Leads to Analog optical signal processing Coherent control of atomic, molecular, and semiconductor systems Designer (and electric field coherent) optical pulses for selective probing of chemical reactions Quantum information? (very likely)
LUX - Laser Systems Laser-based timing system - femtosecond x-ray pulses derived from laser pulses or laser-based RF Master Oscillator Laser + RF Interconnected femtosecond laser systems - actively synched or seeded from master Maintain <100 fs synchronization - laser to laser synchronization - stabilized timing distribution network
Multiple Beamline Endstation Lasers HGHG FEL Seed Laser distribution network crab cavity Photo Injector Laser LINAC RF
R. Schoenlein LUX Review 4/28/03 Summary UBC Physics and Astronomy has a number of optical research activities that are directly relevant to quantum information technologies Acknowledgements: NSERC, CIAR, Galian Photonics Inc., CFI, BCKDF Spectra: 800 m Long Single Mode 20:1 Negative Differential Transmission
Using In-line Filter Distribution of Time/Frequency Standards Plentywood Time/frequency ? Known time/frequency Increase in stability
How do you compare time/frequency? Transport clock via GPS/ two way satellite transfer optical fiber link Motivation for high stability time/frequency transfer Comparison of optical standards for fundamental physics, Remote pulse synchronization: Laser and Linac http://bc1.lbl.gov/CBP_pages/CBP/groups/LUX/ Surveillance Telecom network synchronization
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