Psychology

Psychology

Psychology Fifth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White Copyright 2018, 2015, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Psychology

Fifth Edition Chapter 55 Learning Learning Objectives 1 of 2 5.1 Define the term learning. 5.2 Identify the key elements of classical conditioning as demonstrated in Pavlovs classic experiment. 5.3 Apply classical conditioning to examples of phobias, taste aversions, and drug dependency. 5.4 Identify the contributions of Thorndike and Skinner to the

concept of operant conditioning. 5.5 Differentiate between primary and secondary reinforcers and positive and negative reinforcement. 5.6 Identify the four schedules of reinforcement. 5.7 Identify the effect that punishment has on behavior. Learning Objectives 2 of 2 5.8 Explain the concepts of discriminant stimuli, extinction, generalization, and spontaneous recovery as they relate to operant conditioning. 5.9 Describe how operant conditioning is used to change animal and human behavior.

5.10 Explain the concept of latent learning. 5.11 Explain how Khlers studies demonstrated that animals can learn by insight. 5.12 Summarize Seligmans studies on learned helplessness. 5.13 Describe the process of observational learning. 5.14 List the four elements of observational learning. 5.15 Describe an example of conditioning in the real world. Definition of Learning Learning Objective 5.1 Define the term learning. Learning: any relatively permanent change in

behavior brought about by experience or practice When people learn anything, some part of their brain is physically changed to record what they have learned. Not all change accomplished through learning: some is maturation Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 1 of 11 Learning Objective 5.2 Identify the key elements of classical conditioning as demonstrated in Pavlovs classic experiment. Ivan Pavlov: Russian physiologist who discovered classical conditioning through his work on

digestion in dogs Classical conditioning: learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 2 of 11 Elements of Classical Conditioning: Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response Unconditioned response (UCR): an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus

Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 3 of 11 Elements of Classical Conditioning continued: Conditioned stimulus (CS): stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus Conditioned means learned Neutral stimulus (NS) can become a conditioned stimulus when paired with an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response (CR): learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus

Sometimes called a conditioned reflex CS: ice cream truck CR: salivation when one hears ice cream truck bell Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 4 of 11 Acquisition: repeated pairing of the NS and the UCS; the organism is in the process of acquiring learning although classical conditioning happens quite easily, a few basic principles that researchers have discovered: CS must come before UCS CS and UCS must come very close together in timeideally,

only several seconds apart Neutral stimulus must be paired with the UCS several times, often many times, before conditioning can take place Figure 5.1 Classical Conditioning Before conditioning takes place, the sound of the metronome does not cause salivation and is a neutral stimulus, or NS. During conditioning, the sound of the metronome occurs just before the presentation of the food, the UCS.

The food causes salivation, the UCR. When conditioning has occurred after several pairings of the metronome with the food, the metronome will begin to elicit a salivation response from the dog without any food. This is learning, and the sound of the metronome is now a CS and the salivation to the bell is the CR. Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 5 of 11

CS is usually some stimulus that is distinctive or stands out from other competing stimuli Stimulus generalization: tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 6 of 11 Stimulus discrimination: tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with

the unconditioned stimulus Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 7 of 11 Extinction: disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning) Figure 5.2 Strength of the Generalized Response An example of stimulus

generalization. The UCS was an electric shock and the UCR was the galvanic skin response (GSR), a measure associated with anxiety. The subjects had been conditioned originally to a CS tone (0) of a given frequency. When tested with the original tone, and with tones 1, 2, and 3 of differing frequencies, a clear generalization effect appeared.

The closer the frequency of the test tone to the frequency of tone 0, the greater was the magnitude of the galvanic skin response to the tone (Hovland, 1937). Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 8 of 11 Spontaneous recovery: reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior

Higher-order conditioning Strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus Neutral stimulus becomes a second conditioned stimulus Figure 5.3 Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery This graph shows the acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, and reacquisition of a conditioned salivary response. Typically, the measure of conditioning is the number of drops of saliva elicited by the CS on each trial. Note that on the day following extinction, the first presentation of the CS elicits quite a large response. This response is due to

spontaneous recovery. Figure 5.4 Higher-Order Conditioning In Stage 1, a strong salivation response is conditioned to occur to the sound of the metronome (CS1). In Stage 2, finger snapping (NS) is repeatedly paired with the ticking of the metronome (CS1) until the dog begins to salivate to the finger snapping alone (now CS2). This is called higher-order conditioning, because one CS is used to create another, higher CS. Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 9 of 11 Conditioned emotional response (CER): emotional

response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli Examples: fear of dogs; the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person CERs may lead to phobiasirrational fear responses. Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 10 of 11 Stimulus substitution: original theory in which Pavlov stated that classical conditioning occurred because the conditioned stimulus became a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together

Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs 11 of 11 Cognitive perspective: modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus Classical Conditioning Applied to Human Behavior 1 of 2 Learning Objective 5.3 Apply classical conditioning to examples of phobias, taste aversions, and drug dependency.

Conditioned emotional response (CER): emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli Vicarious conditioning: classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person Figure 5.5 Conditioning of Little Albert After Little Albert had been conditioned to fear a white rat, he also demonstrated

fear to a rabbit, a dog, and a sealskin coat (although it remains uncertain if stimulus generalization actually occurred as this fear was to a single rabbit, a single dog, etc.). Can you think of any emotional reactions you experience that might be classically conditioned emotional responses? Classical Conditioning Applied to Human Behavior 2 of 2 Conditioned taste aversion: development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction Occurs after only one association

Biological preparedness: tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning The Contributions of Thorndike and Skinner 1 of 3 Learning Objective 5.4 Identify the contributions of Thorndike and Skinner to the concept of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning: the learning of voluntary

behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses The Contributions of Thorndike and Skinner 2 of 3 Thorndikes law of effect If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated Figure 5.6 Graph of the Time to Learn in

Thorndikes Experiment This is one of the earliest learning curves in the history of the experimental study of conditioning. The time required by one of Thorndikes cats to escape from the puzzle

box gradually decreased with trials but with obvious reversals. The Contributions of Thorndike and Skinner 3 of 3 B.F. Skinner was a behaviorist; he wanted to study only observable, measurable behavior Gave operant conditioning its name Operant: any behavior that is voluntary

Learning depends on what happens after the response: the consequence The Concept of Reinforcement 1 of 2 Learning Objective 5.5 Differentiate between primary and secondary reinforcers and positive and negative reinforcement. Reinforcement: any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again Primary reinforcer: any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as

hunger, thirst, or touch Secondary reinforcer: any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars Figure 5.7 A Typical Skinner Box This rat is learning to press the bar in the wall of the cage in order to get food (delivered a few pellets at a time in the food trough on lower left). In some cases, the light on the top left might be turned on to indicate that pressing the bar will lead to food or to warn of an impending shock delivered by the grate on the floor of the cage.

Table 5.1 Comparing Two Kinds of Conditioning Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning End result is an increase in the rate of an already occurring response. End result is the creation of a new response to a stimulus that did not normally produce that response.

Responses are voluntary, emitted by the organism. Responses are involuntary and reflexive, elicited by a stimulus. Consequences are important in forming an association. Antecedent stimuli are important in forming an association.

Reinforcement should be immediate. CS must occur immediately before the UCS. An expectancy develops for reinforcement to follow a correct response. An expectancy develops for UCS to follow CS.

The Concept of Reinforcement 2 of 2 Positive reinforcement: the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experience of a pleasurable stimulus Negative reinforcement: the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus Example: taking aspirin for a headache is negatively reinforced: removal of headache! Schedules of Reinforcement: Why the

One-Armed Bandit Is So Seductive 1 of 3 Learning Objective 5.6 Identify the four schedules of reinforcement. Partial reinforcement effect: a response that is reinforced after somebut not allcorrect responses tends to be very resistant to extinction Continuous reinforcement: reinforcement of each and every correct response Schedules of Reinforcement: Why the One-Armed Bandit Is So Seductive 2 of 3 Fixed interval schedule of reinforcement: interval

of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same Variable interval schedule of reinforcement: the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event Schedules of Reinforcement: Why the One-Armed Bandit Is So Seductive 3 of 3 Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement: number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same

Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement: schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event Figure 5.8 Schedules of Reinforcement These four graphs show the typical pattern of responding for both fixed and variable interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement. The responses are cumulative, which means new responses are added to those that come before, and all

graphs begin after the learned pattern is well established. Slash marks mean that a reinforcement has been given. In both the fixed interval and fixed ratio graphs, there is a pause after each reinforcement as the learner briefly rests. The scalloped shape of the fixed interval curve is a typical indicator of this pause, as is the stair-step shape of the fixed ratio curve. In the variable interval and ratio schedules, no such pause occurs, because the reinforcements are unpredictable. Notice that both fixed and

variable interval schedules are slower (less steep) than the two ratio schedules because of the need to respond as quickly as possible in the ratio schedules. The Role of Punishment in Operant Conditioning 1 of 3 Learning Objective 5.7 Identify the effect that punishment has on behavior. Punishment: any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again

Punishment by application: the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus Punishment by removal: the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus Table 5.2 Four Ways to Modify Behavior Blank cell Reinforcement Punishment

Positive (Adding) Something valued or desirable Something unpleasant Blank cell Positive Reinforcement Example: getting a gold

star for good behavior in school Punishment by Application Example: getting a spanking for disobeying Negative (Removing/ Avoiding) Something unpleasant

Something valued or desirable Blank cell Negative Reinforcement Example: fastening a seat belt to stop the alarm from sounding Punishment by Removal Example: losing a privilege

such as going out with friends The Role of Punishment in Operant Conditioning 2 of 3 Severe punishment May cause avoidance of the punisher instead of the behavior being punished May encourage lying to avoid punishment Creates fear and anxiety Table 5.3 Negative Reinforcement Versus

Punishment by Removal Example of Negative Reinforcement Example of Punishment by Removal Stopping at a red light to avoid getting in an accident. Losing the privilege of driving because you got into too many accidents. Fastening your seat belt to get the

annoying warning signal to stop. Having to spend some of your money to pay a ticket for failure to wear a seat belt. Obeying a parent before the parent reaches the count of three to avoid getting a scolding. Being grounded (losing your freedom) because of disobedience.

The Role of Punishment in Operant Conditioning 3 of 3 Punishment should immediately follow behavior it is meant to punish. Punishment should be consistent. Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible, with reinforcement of the right behavior. Other Aspects of Operant Conditioning 1 of 2

Learning Objective 5.8 Explain the concepts of discriminant stimuli, extinction, generalization, and spontaneous recovery as they relate to operant conditioning. Discriminative stimulus: any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement Extinction occurs if the behavior (response) is not reinforced. One way to deal with a childs temper tantrum is to ignore it; lack of reinforcement for the tantrum behavior

will eventually result in extinction Other Aspects of Operant Conditioning 2 of 2 Operantly conditioned responses also can be generalized to stimuli that are only similarnot identicalto the original stimulus Spontaneous recovery (reoccurrence of a onceextinguished response) also happens in operant conditioning Applications of Operant Conditioning: Shaping and Behavior Modification 1 of 7 Learning Objective 5.9 Describe how operant conditioning is used to change

animal and human behavior. Shaping: reinforcement of simple steps, leading to a desired complex behavior Successive approximation: small steps, one after another, that lead to a particular goal behavior Applications of Operant Conditioning: Shaping and Behavior Modification 2 of 7 Instinctive drift: tendency for an animals behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns Each animal comes into the world (and lab) with certain

genetically determined instinctive patterns of behavior already in place. Instincts differ from species to species Some responses simply cannot be trained into an animal regardless of conditioning Applications of Operant Conditioning: Shaping and Behavior Modification 3 of 7 Raccoons commonly dunk their food in and out of water before eating. This washing behavior is controlled by

instinct, and is difficult to change even using operant techniques. Applications of Operant Conditioning: Shaping and Behavior Modification 4 of 7 Behavior modification: use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior Token economy: type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens

Applications of Operant Conditioning: Shaping and Behavior Modification 5 of 7 Time-out: form of mild punishment by removal in which a misbehaving animal, child, or adult is placed in a special area away from the attention of others Essentially, the organism is being removed from any possibility of positive reinforcement in the form of attention Applications of Operant Conditioning: Shaping and Behavior Modification 6 of 7

Applied behavior analysis (ABA): modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response Applications of Operant Conditioning: Shaping and Behavior Modification 7 of 7 Biofeedback: use of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses such as blood pressure and relaxation under voluntary control Neurofeedback: form of biofeedback using

devices (EEG, fMRI) to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior Cognitive Learning Theory Researchers early focus was on observable and measurable behavior In 1950s and 1960s, many psychologists becoming aware that cognition could no longer be ignored Cognition: mental events that take place inside a persons mind while behaving

Tolmans Maze-Running Rats: Latent Learning 1 of 3 Learning Objective 5.10 Explain the concept of latent learning. Edward Tolman: early cognitive scientist Best-known experiments in learning involved teaching three groups of rats the same maze, one at a time (Tolman & Honzik, 1930) Tolmans Maze-Running Rats: Latent Learning 2 of 3 Edward Tolmans Maze Experiment

Group 1 Rewarded each time at end of maze Learned maze quickly Group 2 In maze every day; only rewarded on 10th day Demonstrated learning of maze almost immediately after receiving reward Group 3 Never rewarded Did not learn maze well

Tolmans Maze-Running Rats: Latent Learning 3 of 3 Latent learning: learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful Figure 5.9 A Typical Maze This is an example of a maze such as the one used in Tolmans experiments in latent learning. A rat is placed

in the start box. The trial is over when the rat gets to the end box. Figure 5.10 Learning Curves for Three Groups of Rats In the results of the classic study of latent learning, Group 1 was rewarded on each day, while Group 2

was rewarded for the first time on Day 11. Group 3 was never rewarded. Note the immediate change in the behavior of Group 2 on Day 12 (Tolman & Honzik, 1930).

Khlers Smart Chimp: Insight Learning Learning Objective 5.11 Explain how Khlers studies demonstrated that animals can learn by insight. Insight: the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly Cannot be gained through trial-and-error learning alone Aha moment Seligmans Depressed Dogs: Learned Helplessness

Learning Objective 5.12 Summarize Seligmans studies on learned helplessness. Positive psychology: new way of looking at the entire concept of mental health and therapy that focuses on the adaptive, creative, and psychologically more fulfilling aspects of human experience rather than on mental disorders Learned helplessness: tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past Figure 5.11 Seligmans Apparatus

In Seligmans studies of learned helplessness, dogs were placed in a two-sided box. Dogs that had no prior experience with being unable to escape a shock would quickly jump over the hurdle in the center of the box to land on the safe side. Dogs that had previously learned that escape was impossible would stay on the side of the box in which the shock occurred, not even trying to go over the hurdle. Bandura and the Bobo Doll Learning Objective 5.13 Describe the process of observational learning. Observational learning: learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior

Learning/performance distinction: learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior Figure 5.12 Banduras Bobo Doll Experiment In Albert Banduras famous Bobo doll experiment, the doll was used to demonstrate the impact of observing an adult model performing aggressive behavior on the later aggressive behavior of children. The children in these photos are imitating the adult models behavior even though they believe they are alone and are not being watched.

The Four Elements of Observational Learning 1 of 2 Learning Objective 5.14 List the four elements of observational learning. Attention To learn anything through observation, the learner must first pay attention to the model. Memory The learner must also be able to retain the memory of what was done, such as remembering the steps in preparing a dish that were first seen on a

cooking show. The Four Elements of Observational Learning 2 of 2 Imitation The learner must be capable of reproducing, or imitating, the actions of the model. Desire The learner must have the motivation to perform the action.

Can You Really Toilet Train Your Cat? Learning Objective 5.15 Describe an example of conditioning in the real world. Training a cat to use the toilet will involve: Shaping Preparing the training arena Positive reinforcement on a variable schedule

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • 1 SM CHAPTER 4 Services Marketing 2 SM

    1 SM CHAPTER 4 Services Marketing 2 SM

    CHAPTER 4 Services Marketing
  • Radiation Quantities and Units - inayasa

    Radiation Quantities and Units - inayasa

    TYPE OF RADIATION DAMAGE. The effects of radiation on the human population can be classified as either somatic or genetic: Somatic effects. are harm that exposed individuals suffer during their lifetime, such as radiation induced cancers (carcinogenesis), sterility, opacification of...
  • ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES LOGISTICS Simple Past Tenses [-ed]-

    ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES LOGISTICS Simple Past Tenses [-ed]-

    SIMPLE vs Complex Sentences Connecting Words and , but although, despite of , despite the fact that, which, nevertheless, , when, though, because. A. We need to increase the quality of our research. Increasing the quality of our research will...
  • Assessment of Practical work at GCSE

    Assessment of Practical work at GCSE

    Assessment of Practical work at GCSE ... Chemistry or Biology Done as part of normal teaching Progressive Example ISAs Effect of acid rain on seed germination and growth Effort of human activity on distribution of organisms Testing the viscosity of...
  • Solutions to Exam #1 - ISyE

    Solutions to Exam #1 - ISyE

    Solutions to Exam #1 John H. Vande Vate Fall, 2002
  • RWI Parent/Carer Meeting  February 2015 At Ysgol Maes-y-Llan

    RWI Parent/Carer Meeting February 2015 At Ysgol Maes-y-Llan

    Use only single syllable words (no Fred Talking multi-syllabic words) and only the last word in a sentence or it gets very silly! E.g. P_u_t o_n y_our b_l_ue c_oa_t (you'll never get out!). * "Reading is the one ability, that...
  • Point Groups - University of California, Irvine

    Point Groups - University of California, Irvine

    MO Diagrams for Diatomic Molecules. Chapter 5. Friday, October 9, 2015. Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules. What happens when we move to more complicated systems? Consider O. 2.The Lewis dot structure famously predicts the wrong electronic structure for O. 2
  • Certificates of Confidentiality - Louisiana State University

    Certificates of Confidentiality - Louisiana State University

    CERTIFICATES OF CONFIDENTIALITY Certificates of Confidentiality Issued by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Protect investigators and institutions from being compelled to release information that could be used to identify research study participants Allow the investigator and others who have...