Proposed Rule: Changes to 9 CFR 54 and 79

Proposed Rule: Changes to 9 CFR 54 and 79

Veterinary Services National Scrapie Eradication Program Proposed Updates to 9 CFR 54 and 79 Sheep and Goat Health U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Veterinary Services September 9, 2015 A Note About This Presentation General overview of a proposed rule to make changes to the National Scrapie Eradication Program.

There is additional information on various topics in the Notes section underneath the slides. For brevity, the list of proposed changes in this presentation includes only the major proposed changes and is not comprehensive. Read the entire proposed rule to review all proposed changes as well as APHIS reasons for the proposed changes. 2 Introduction On September 10, 2015 APHIS published a proposed rule in the Federal Register.

The proposed rule would make changes to the regulations for the National Scrapie Eradication Program that will help the U.S. achieve scrapie freedom. APHIS is seeking comments on the proposed rule through November 9, 2015. Comments can be submitted online or by mail. APHIS is also seeking comments on the draft National Scrapie Program Standards, Vol. 1 through November 9, 2015. The draft includes the web content referenced in the proposed rule and has been revised to be consistent with the proposed rule. 3

Get a Copy A copy of the rule may be obtained by Webpage http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=APHIS-2007-0127 Public reading room Dr. Diane Sutton, USDA APHIS Veterinary Services - [email protected], (301) 851-3509 or Dr. Alan Huddleston [email protected], (301) 8513497 A copy of the draft revised National Scrapie Program Standards, Vol. 1 which incorporates the material that the proposed rule indicates will be posted on the web along with an extract of this material may be obtained at:

http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=APHIS-2007-0127 http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal-health/scrapie Dr. Diane Sutton, USDA APHIS Veterinary Services - [email protected], (301) 851-3509 or Dr. Alan Huddleston [email protected], (301) 8513497 4 Comment on the Proposed Rule or Program Standards Comments can be made by

Federal eRulemaking Portal: http ://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=APHIS-2007-0127. Postal Mail/Commercial Delivery. Send your comment to Docket No. APHIS-20070127, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118, Riverdale, MD 20737-1238. Please note: Dr. Sutton and Dr. Huddleston cannot take comments on the proposed rule comments must be submitted by the methods described above. 5 Commenting on the Proposed Rule One item APHIS particularly seeks comments on is the effectiveness of 9 CFR 79.2(a)(3), which allows certain livestock facilities to apply official ID on unidentified animals on behalf of the owner. Should this be continued, removed, or amended?

6 What is Scrapie? Degenerative and eventually fatal prion disease affecting the central nervous system of sheep and goats. Scrapie infected animals appear normal for several years before they develop signs and die First described over 250 years ago in Europe First case in the U.S. in 1947 7 Why Eradicate Scrapie? Economic Reasons $10-20 million lost annually due to the presence of scrapie in this country Loss of trade opportunities Loss of productivity Increased carcass disposal costs

Public Health World Health Organization (WHO) recommends elimination of all transmissible spongiform encephalopathies from food producing animals 8 Program Status 9 Infected and Source Flocks New Statuses by Year - Fiscal Years 1997 to 2015* 200 150 Infecte d Source

100 50 * As of August 31, 2015. 3 FY '1 FY '15 1 FY '1 FY '09

FY '07 FY '05 FY '03 FY '01 FY '99 FY '97

0 Percent of RSSS Sheep Samples that Tested Positive for Classical Scrapie - Weighted by Face Color Fiscal Years 2003 to 2015* 0.16% 0.14% 0.12% 0.10% 0.08% % Pos '03 % Pos '04 % Pos '05 % Pos '06 % Pos '07 % Pos '08 % Pos '09 % Pos '10

% Pos '11 0.06% % Pos '12 % Pos '13 % Pos '14 0.04% % Pos '15 0.02% 0.00% * As of July 31, 2015. Adjusted to exclude multiple positive animals from the same flock. Does not include Nor98-like scrapie cases found through RSSS (2 in FY 2007, 1 in FY 2008, 4 in FY 2010, 1 in FY 2011).

Guiding Principles of the Current Regulations and Proposed Rule Trace back and trace forward Flock and animal risk level Testing has limits to its practical utility Genetic resistance and susceptibility 12

What would the proposed rule do? Increase goat identification requirements to bring them in line with those currently in place for sheep Update indemnity procedures Increase flexibility in investigations Adopt genetic-based flock management pilot Add flexibility for handling Nor98-like scrapie and other new types of scrapie that may be identified Require States to meet surveillance minimums 13 Why do we need to increase ID requirements for goats? 14 Goats Get Scrapie

Increase Goat Identification Requirements Goat ID requirements would become similar to those for sheep in interstate commerce Low risk commercial goat exemption would be removed No change in the consistent State requirements regarding identification of goats in intrastate commerce Impact Facilitate increased slaughter surveillance in goats Allow for better tracing of positive and exposed goats 16 Adopt Genetic-Based Flock Management Already in effect through a pilot project

Reassigns risk level for genetically less susceptible and genetically resistant sheep Impact Adopt the pilot project as a formal regulation Keeps the number of animals that need to be indemnified and destroyed in infected/source and exposed flocks down Help keep affected producers in business 17 Update Indemnity Change definition of High-risk animal Female offspring or embryos of positive female animal Suspect animals

Genetically susceptible female exposed animals Others if designated by APHIS based on risk Impact Puts into regulation the policies currently implemented as part of a national genetics based pilot program. Which allows the unrestricted movement of less susceptible and resistant exposed animals, and decreases the number of animals eligible for indemnity and costs to taxpayers 18 Increase Flexibility in Investigations Give more consideration to individual flock epidemiology determining flock and animal status

Place designation and redesignation guidance on the APHIS Web page instead of the Code of Federal Regulations Impact Better decisions based on knowledge of the individual flock Updates to the guidance easier and faster 19 Increased Flexibility Gives the APHIS Administrator authority to determine whether and how to regulated non-classical forms of scrapie such as Nor98-like scrapie and the ability to adjust the program based on new scientific information.

Impact Adopt an existing pilot project for Nor98-like (atypical) scrapie Flexibility to regulate scrapie types differently if warranted by scientific evidence 20 Use of Tattoos & Implants Limit the use of tattoos and implants (EIDs) as the only official ID to animals Not in slaughter channels Not moving through concentration points where change of ownership occurs (does not include seedstock sales were there is a transfer of registration certificates)

Ear tag as second official ID when tattooed animals are moved through concentration points Placed in the ear For earless animals placed around the neck on a durable neck strap Impact Improved traceability 21 Recordkeeping Requirements Simplify Consolidate existing recordkeeping language

Clarify who is responsible for maintaining records Clarify information to be kept in records Remove Requirement in many cases to read and record individual identification applied before a new owner or shipper receives the animal Add Requirement for an owner/hauler statement for animals in slaughter channels Impact Increased efficiency in identification and recordkeeping compliance Improved traceability

22 Simplify Language Clarify definitions and language found confusing Make terminology and citations consistent throughout the regulations 23 Surveillance Minimums for Consistent States Require States to meet annual sheep and goat sampling minimums to maintain Consistent State status

Based on population determined by the USDA National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS) Determined by APHIS every year and distributed to States by March 31 Impact Ensure samples are representative of the entire United States Increase samples obtained on farm 24

Get a Copy A copy of the rule may be obtained by Webpage http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=APHIS-2007-0127 Public reading room Dr. Diane Sutton, USDA APHIS Veterinary Services - [email protected], (301) 851-3509 or Dr. Alan Huddleston [email protected], (301) 8513497 A copy of the draft revised National Scrapie Program Standards, Vol. 1 which incorporates the material that the proposed rule indicates will be posted on the web and an extract of this material may be obtained at:

http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=APHIS-2007-0127 http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal-health/scrapie Dr. Diane Sutton, USDA APHIS Veterinary Services - [email protected], (301) 851-3509 or Dr. Alan Huddleston [email protected], (301) 8513497 25 26 26

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