# Properties of Matter - Mr. Hoover's Science Classes

Properties of Matter Lesson 2 February 2nd, 2011 Matter has many forms Matter anything that has mass and volume. Mass is a measure of the quantity of an object. (g, kg,) Volume is a measure of space taken up (mL, L) The Particle Theory of Matter (4 points)

Way of describing matter. 1. All matter is composed of very tiny objects called particles. 2. Each Pure substance has its own kind of particles, different from the particles of other pure substances. The Particle Theory of Matter (4 points) 3. Particles present in matter are always in motion. They may be vibrating back and

forth, as in a solid, or moving in all directions, as in a gas. In a liquid, particles stay close together but can slide past one another. 4. The particles in a substance attract each other. The amount of attraction is different for different kinds of particles. All particles have spaces between them. Changes of State There are 3 states of matter Solid Liquid

gas Terms for changes of state Melting Change from a solid to a liquid Evaporation - Change from a liquid to a gas Condensation - Change from a gas to a liquid Freezing - Change from a liquid to a solid Sublimation - Change from a solid to a gas Deposition - Change from a gas to a solid Terms for changes of state

The temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid is called the melting point. (water is 0C) The reverse process, freezing, occurs at the freezing point. the temperature at which a liquid turns to a gas is called the boiling point. The boiling point is the same temperature as the condensing point, the temperature at which a gas changes into a liquid Physical Properties

-A physical property describes a characteristic of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of matter. Example: Melting Point, Boiling Point When water freezes it expands due to a special bonding between water molecules.

Larger volume with the same mass = Less dense This is why ice floats Observing Physical Properties Property Description

Examples Colour and lustre The light the substance reflects gives it colour and lustre (shine) The names for some substances, such as gold, are also the names of colours. Gold has lustre; concrete is dull

Conductivity Conductivity is the ability of a substance to conduct electricity or heat. A substance that conducts electricity or heat is called a conductor. A substance with little or no conductivity is an insulator. Most metals are good conductors. Copper is a very good conductor of electricity

and so is used to make electric wires. Styrofoam and glass are insulators. What it looks like Observing Physical Properties Property Description Examples Density

Density is the amount of mass in a given volume of a substance. D = m/v Ductility Any solid that can be stretched into a long wire is said to be ductile. The density of pure water

is 1 g/mL. The density of gold is 19 g/mL. Water is denser than oil, but gold is denser than water. Copper is a common example of a ductile material. What it looks like Observing Physical Properties Property

Hardness Malleability Description Hardness is a substances ability to resist being scratched. Hardness is usually measured on the Mohs hardness scale from 1 to 10. A substance that can be pounded or rolled into

sheets is said to be malleable. Examples The mineral talc is the softest substance on the Mohs hardness scale (1). Emerald is quite hard (7.5). Diamond is the hardest (10). Aluminum foil is an example of a malleable substance. Metals such as gold and tin are also malleable.

What it looks like Observing Physical Properties Property Viscosity Description Examples Viscosity is the Honey has a high

resistance of a fluid to viscosity flow. Compared to water. What it looks like Physical Properties - Lab

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