Project Management Martha Grabowski LeMoyne College 02/01/20 1 Project Sequence of unique, complex and interconnected activities with a goal or purpose that must be completed by a specified time, within budget, and according to specifications. Projects involve complex activities interconnected, sequential events defined milestones, deliverables, expectations deliverables that must meet specification(s) 02/01/20
Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 2 Project Management Process of scoping, planning, staffing, organizing, directing and controlling the development of an acceptable system at acceptable cost (minimum?) within a specified time frame. Tiger teams temporary, flexible, interdepartmental teams responsibility and authority for firefighting accountable for organizational success 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001
3 Process Management Ongoing activity that documents, manages the use of, and improves an organizations chosen methodology for systems development. Process management concerned with all projects activities, deliverables, and quality standards 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 4 Successful Projects System is acceptable to the customer.
System is delivered on time. System is delivered within budget. System development process had minimal impact on ongoing business operations! 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 5 Why Do Projects Fail? Failure to establish upper management commitment to project. > commitments change? Lack of organizational commitment to system development process Taking shortcuts through or around the
system development process. > Project team behind schedule, wants to catch up > Project is over budget and team wants to make up $$ > Team is not trained or skilled in methodology and requiremts 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 6 Why Do Projects Fail? Poor expectations management > Project expectations change? > Scope creep--unexpected growth of user expectations and business requirements as the project progresses. Adversely impacts schedule and budget > Feature creep--uncontrolled addition of technical features to a system under development without
regard to schedule and budget. 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 7 Why Do Projects Fail? Premature commitment to a fixed budget and schedule. > Firm fixed cost > Cost plus fixed fee > Creeping commitment? Poor estimating techniques Overoptimism >Task dependencies influence completion > Lost time in time-critical activities compounds 02/01/20
Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 8 Why Do Projects Fail? Mythical man month (Brooks, 1975) > Work hours estimates with unreasonable assumptions > As project gets further behind, more people assigned to the team > Addition of more people adds communication problems, etc. Inadequate people management skills 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley &
Dittman 2001 9 Why Do Projects Fail? Failure to adapt to business change > Overtaken by events (OBE) > Management reorganization or business needs change > Projects importance changes over time > Project should be reassessed for viability, importance to the business Insufficient resources Failure to manage to the plan 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001
10 Project Management Competencies Business acumen Problem-solving skills Leadership and influence skills People management skills Self-management, self-direction 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 11 Project Management Activities Scoping Planning Estimating
Scheduling Organizing Directing Controlling Closing 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 12 Project Management Tools PERT charts--graphical network model that depicts a projects tasks and the relationships between those tasks. Task Scheduled Scheduled
Start Finish Actual Start Actual Finish 02/01/20 Intertask Dependency Task Scheduled Scheduled Start Finish Actual Start
Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 Actual Finish 13 Project Management Tools Statement of work--narrative description of work to be performed as part of a project. Also called project definition. Task Scheduled Scheduled Start Finish Actual Start
Actual Finish 02/01/20 Intertask Dependency Task Scheduled Scheduled Start Finish Actual Start Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 Actual Finish
14 Project Management Tools Gantt charts--horizontal bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calendar. Each bar is a task. Tasks are listed vertically in a column. 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 15 Project Management Tools Statement of work--narrative description of work to be performed as part of a project. Also called project definition. 1. Purpose
2. Background Problem Opportunity or Directive Statement History, leading to project request Project goal and objectives Product description 3. Scope Stakeholders Data Processes Locations 4. Project Approach Route Deliverables 02/01/20 5. Managerial Approach Team building considerations Manager and experience Training requirements Meeting schedules
Reporting methods and frequency Conflict management Scope management 6. Constraints Start Date Deadlines Budget Technology Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 16 Project Management Tools, continued Statement of work--narrative description of work to be performed as part of a project. Also called project definition. 7. Ballpark Estimates Schedule
Budget 8. Conditions of Satisfaction Success criteria Assumptions Risk 9. Appendices 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 17 Project Management Tools Work breakdown structure--hierarchical decomposition of a project into phases, activities and tasks. G r a p h ic a l W o r k B r e a k d o w n S t r u c t u r e P r o je c t G o a l
Phase 1 A c tiv ity 2 .1 02/01/20 Phase 2 A c tiv ity 2 .2 Phase 3 A c tiv ity 2 .3 A c tiv ity 2 .4 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 18
Project Management Life Cycle 1. Negotiate scope 2. Identify tasks 3. Estimate Task Durations 4. Specify Intertask Dependencies 5. Assign Resources 6. Direct the Team Effort 02/01/20 Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001 19 Project Management Life Cycle 7. Monitor and control progress 8. Assess project results and experiences 9. Document lessons learned 10. Institutionalize process improvements
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