U.S. History Western Expansion Progressive Era 1860-1890 1890-1920 Gilded Age 1870-1890
Populist Movement 1860-1900 (a progressive movement of farmers wanting inflation and government regulation of major services) Progressive Era Circa 1890-1920
Progressive Era: Defining Special Terms *=see notes 1. Progressive--reform 2. Prohibitionmaking alcohol illegal 3. City managerappointed administrator of a city 4. Referendum/initiativewhen voters can decide state issues and laws with ballots 5. Recalltaking a public official out of office after their election
6. Primaryfirst election to select candidates for office 7. Yellow journalism* 8. Muckraking* 9. Political corruptionusing government for private gain 10. Conservation--environmentalism 11. trustbusterpolitician who enforced anti-trust laws 12. Suffrageright to vote
13. Civil Rightsworking toward equal rights for races 14. NAACPCivil Rights organization 15. Social gospelduty to help the poor 16. Workmens Compensationrequirement of insurance for people hurt on the job 17. Populist PartyPeoples Party who sponsored farmers issues
Film: CausesProgressive Era and Today The expansion of the U.S. into the West and the development of industry and cities in the East led to lots of issues and
problems. The Progressive Era attempted to address and solve those problems and issues. Todays world has lots of problems and issues that people embrace as causes. What is your cause? What would be your cause
during the Progressive Era? View the film and list 10 causes and star four you would take on. The Progressive Era is driven by personalities!
Teddy Roosevelt Woodrow Wilson Susan B. Anthony
Booker T. Washington W.E.B. DuBois William Randolph Hearst Pulitzer Rockefeller and Carnegie Middle class women Frank Lloyd Wright Northern Issues Southern Issues
Western Issues Yellow Journalism Exaggerated news to sell newspapers Tended to sensationalize events for the purpose of entertainment and profit Most notable were papers owned by Hearst and
Pulitzer Muckrakers Early 20th century journalists who exposed illegal business practices, social injustices and corrupt urban political bosses Exposed urban problems The rise of mass circulation newspapers and magazines enabled muckrakers to reach a large audience. Leading muckrakers included Upton Sinclair,
Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbell, Ida Wells, Lewis Hine, Thomas Nast, Lincoln Steffens TR called Upton Sinclair a muckraker Film: The Progressive Movement (for each topic, write a detailed sentence) 1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7. Women Take the Lead A Clash of Cultures Muckrakers and Bosses Fighting the Trust Roosevelt and Wilson Freedom? Whose Freedom? Women Suffragists
William Tweed, the boss of the Tammany Hall Democratic party political machine He was arrested, tried and imprisoned
Thomas Nast exposed the political machine of Tammany Hall and its political boss, William Tweed Nast drew the symbols of the two political parties Nast also drew this familiar image Reconstructionrebuilding the South after the Civil War Northern
occupation Southern resentments Temporary rights for freedmen Freedmens Bureau Cycle of poverty started with sharecropping Interpret the cartoon
Post Civil War Efforts and Legacy Reconstruction (1865-1877) Textile mills and infrastructure (New South) Republican dominance Solid South voted Democrat Black Codes and Jim Crow legislation Rise and fall of the Klan Segregation and legacy of sharecropping, tenant farming, and
poverty Nast exposed Reconstruction atrocities 1. Describe the horrors of Reconstruction (186577) as shown in the political cartoon. 2. How would Northerners respond to this cartoon? Southerners? 3. How would African
Americans respond? Civil Rights Issues Segregationtwo kinds De jure segregation by lawin South De facto segregation by traditionin North Civil Rights Leaders Booker T. Washington
W.E.B. DuBois The Atlanta Compromise The Atlanta Compromise was an agreement struck in 1895 between Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute, and other African-American leaders, and Southern white leaders. It was opposed by W. E. B. Du Bois and other African-American leaders. Education was limited to vocational
programs It promoted accommodation, not activism Plessy v. Ferguson Louisiana train Southern tradition vs. 14th Amendment (rights of citizenship) Decision was a HUGE SETBACK for Civil Rights Promoted separate but equal doctrine and extended
segregation for 70 more years! Temperance led to Prohibition Frances Willard led the Womens Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Carrie Nation axed saloons and bars 18th Amendment passed in 1920 (was repealed by 21st Amendment in 1933)
Women marched for suffrage (the right to vote!) Women got the vote in 1920! See video of womens suffrage See Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (PBS: American Experience) Helen Keller (1880-1968) Music
Ragtime by Scott Joplin Tin Pan Alley songs by George M. Cohan, Irving Berlin, George and Ira Gershwin J.P. Morgan Considered most powerful man in the country Until Sued by government over monopolies
Sealed TRs reputation as a trustbuster Roosevelt http:// www.history.com/top ics/us-presidents/the odore-roosevelt YMCA and YWCApromoted health of youth Disasters led communities to reform:
Examples: Blizzard of 1888 (led to National Weather Service) Galveston Hurricane of 1900 (6000 deadled to sea wall) Floods of Mississippi Delta and Ohio River Cities controlled utilities Changed view of what government should be and should do 1910--New ideas of Government?
Be accountable to the people Curb the power of the wealthy Protect workers Improve lives of citizens
Become more efficient and less corrupt Control only utility businesses (water, gas, electricity) A New Brand of Patriotism The Pledge of Allegiance was written in the 1890s by Francis Bellamy changed in 1920s by Daughters of the American Revolution changed again in 1950s by Knights of Columbus
America the Beautiful was written by Katherine Bates in the 1890s Progressive Era Posters Raised Awareness Sort the issues 1. Home 2. Conservation 3. State/Local Reforms 4. Finance 5. Politicians
6. Women 7. Civil Rights 8. Labor 9. Federal Legislation 10.Other Reformers Answers to 1-10 1. Home Issues: social gospel, birth control, womens suffrage, meat, education, poverty, architecture, prohibition, 18th amendment, 19th amendment, child labor laws, universities, yellow journalism, muckraking
2. Conservation Issues (see #XIII): water rights, forest management, national parks, public parks, landscaping, Sierra Club, Boy Scouts, T. Roosevelts presidency, U.S. Forest Service, Frederick Law Olmstead 3. State and Local Reforms: city managers, commissioners, secret ballot, referendums, initiatives, direct primaries, recall elections, prohibition, political corruption and machines, meat, food and drugs, settlement houses, poverty, lynching, architecture, conservation,
womens rights, birth control, socialism, unions, civil rights, education, social gospel, corporate welfare, segregation 4. Finance Reform: trustbusting, Sherman Anti-trust Act, Clayton Anti-trust Act, History of Standard Oil, break up of the Rockefeller monopoly, Federal Reserve Bank, corporate welfare, Workmens Compensation, unions, Department of Labor 5. Politicians: T. Roosevelt, W. Wilson, C.E.
Hughes, H. Hoover, W.J. Bryan, Al Smith, Eugene Debs, Robert La Follette 6. Womens Issues: suffrage, education, child labor, prohibition, universities, social gospel, Civil Rights, architecture, settlement houses, social work, poverty, meat, food, drugs, political corruption, muckraking, reforming local and state governments 7. Civil Rights: lynching, education, African American universities, NAACP, Niagra Movement,
Plessy case, segregation, separate but equal, unions, poverty 8. Labor: unions, socialists, Workmens Compensation, income tax, corporate welfare, Department of Labor, child labor laws, mandatory education laws, Meat Inspection and Pure Food and Drug Act, trustbusting, Sherman Anti-trust Act, Clayton Anti-trust Act, social gospel 9. Federal Legislation: Amendments 16, 17, 18, 19, Federal Reserve Act, Sherman Anti-trust Act, Clayton
Anti-trust Act, Workmens Compensation, Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act, Creation of U.S. Parks and Forests, child labor laws, mandatory education laws, National Park Service 10. Other Reformers (not politicians): Ida Wells, Upton Sinclair, Margaret Sanger, Frank Lloyd Wright, Louis Sullivan, Jane Addams, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, DuBois and Washington, Jacob Riis, Lincoln Steffens, Thomas Nast, Pulitzer and
Hearst, Lewis Brandeis, Henry Ford STAAR Amendments (Federal Legislation) 13thfree 14thcitizens 15thvote 16thincome tax 17thelection of senators 18thno alcohol
19thwomens vote Who is on STAAR? Politicians, Reformers, Activists 1. Hearst and Pulitzerpublishers 2. Wright and Sullivanarchitects 3. T. Rooseveltconservation/trustbuster 4. Susan B. Anthonysuffrage 5. Eugene Debsunion and socialist leader 6. Booker T. WashingtonCivil Rights education 7. W.E.B. DuBoisCivil RightsNAACP
8. Jane AddamsHull House/social worker 9. Henry Fordcars and corporate welfare (affordable) 10.Upton SinclairThe Jungle 11.Ida Wellsexposed lynching numbers 12.Frances Willardleader of Womens Christian Temperance Union 13.Woodrow WilsonPresident/Workmens Compensation STAAR Ideas 1. Political machinesorganizations using rewards and gain for political service 2. Civil service reformefforts to end political corruption
3. Labor unionsorganizations of workers 4. Womens suffragewomens right to vote 5. Civil Rightseffort toward political and social equality for minorities 6. Social Gospelapplication of Christian ethics to social problems 7. Initiativeissue put to a vote after a petition 8. Referendumvoters accept or reject a proposal 9. Recallvoters can remove an elected official through their vote 10.Muckrakersjournalists who expose the negatives in society 11.Eugenics good geneseffort to alter genetic traitsa form of scientific racism based on faulty science 12.Prohibitionlegal ban on sale or transportation of alcohol
13.Tin Pan Alleythe new music of New York 14.Populiststhird party supported by farmers Illustration of Progressive Issue
Topic (number and title) Terms/Issues Picturecan be drawn or computer printout Vivid and clear words and picture Bonus points for color (Consider this a cheat sheet)
Acknowledgements Much of the outline of this lecture is derived from a similar course by Hari Balakrishnan. Several slides are from Nick Feamster Interdomain Routing David Andersen 15-744 Spring 2007 Carnegie Mellon University Outline What does the Internet look like?
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