Professional Ethics in Computing Dr. David Sinclair L253 [email protected] What are Professional Ethics? Professional ethics are a code of conduct that govern how members of a profession deal with each other and with third parties. Why should we have a Professional Code of Ethics?
A Professional Code of Ethics serves several functions: Symbolises the professionalism of the group. Defines and promotes a standard for external relations with clients and employers. Protects the groups interests. Codifies members rights. Expresses ideals to aspire to. Offers guidelines in gray areas. Why have a Professional Code of Ethics in Computing?
Software has the potential to do good or cause harm, or to enable or influence others to do good or cause harm. We have pride in our work and want the work that we do to be given recognition and respect. We want to protect our livelihood. Some Examples ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. http://www.acm.org/constitution/code.html
Bitish Computer Society Code of Conduct http://www1.bcs.org.uk/DocsRepository/03200/3224/default.htm IEEE-CS/ACM Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice http://www.computer.org/tab/seprof/code.htm Characteristics of a Code of Ethics They are not simple ethical algorithms that generate ethical decisions. Sometimes elements of the code may be in tension
with each other or other sources. Requires the software engineer to use ethical judgement to act in the spirit of the code of ethics. A good code of ethics will enunicate fundemental principles that require thought rather than blind allegience. Joint IEEE-CS/ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Practice Built on 8 principles
Public Interest Client and Employer Product Judgement
Management Profession Colleagues Self The principle of Public Interest is central to the code. Public Interest Software engineers shall act consistently with the public interest. Approve software only if they have a well-founded
belief that it is safe, meets standards, passes tests and does not diminsh quality of life, privacy or harm the environment. Disclose any actual or potential danger to the user. Be fair an davoid deception in all statements concerning software. Client and Employer Software engineers shall act in a manner that is in the best interests of their client and employer, consistent with the public interest. Be honest about any limitation of their experience and
education. Keep private any confidential information consistent with the public interest and the law. Not knowingly use software that is obtained or retained either illegally or unethically. Product Software engineers shall ensure that their products and related modifications meet the highest professional standards possible. Strive for high quality, acceptable cost, and a reasonable schedule, ensuring significant tradeoffs are
clear. Ensure adequate testing, debugging, and review of software and related documents on which they work. Treat all forms of software maintenance with the same professionalism as new development. Judgement Software engineers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgment. Not engage in deceptive financial practices. Disclose to all concerned parties those
conflicts of interest that cannot reasonably be avoided or escaped. Management Software engineering managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to the management of software development and maintenance. Ensure that software engineers are informed of standards before being held to them. Offer fair and just remuneration. Not punish anyone for expressing ethical
concerns about a project. Profession Software engineers shall advance the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with the public interest. Promote public knowledge of software engineering. Be accurate in stating the characteristics of software on which they work. Take responsibility for detecting, correcting, and reporting errors in software and associated documents on which they work.
Colleagues Software engineers shall be fair to and supportive of their colleagues. Credit fully the work of others and refrain from taking undue credit. Give a fair hearing to the opinions, concerns, or complaints of a colleague. In situations outside of their own areas of competence, call upon the opinions of other professionals who have competence in that area.
Self Software engineers shall participate in lifelong learning regarding the practice of their profession and shall promote an ethical approach to the practice of the profession. Further their knowledge Improve their ability to create safe, reliable, and useful quality software Improve their ability to produce accurate, informative, and well-written documentation. Problems with codes of conduct
They dont cover every case (nor should they). Can a list of rules define a behaviour that everyone considers right? Little penalty for non-compliance Requires a Personal Code of Ethics that is broadly in line with the Professional Code. Ethical Delemma 1: Reverse Engineering When is reverse engineering ethical? Scenario: You are asked to produce
software to read in a file (with an undisclosed proprietary format) into an application. Test vectors and analysis? Decompilation? Clean room environment Ethical Delemma 2: Whistle Blowing If you believe that knowledge of unethical practices would cause a change in the practices: Reality check (make sure you are right)
The goal is to get management to recognise and remedy problem with minimal conflict. Take problem outside the organisation as last resort and act as an individual, not an employee. Be prepared to live with the results. Document everything. Be on your best behaviour.
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