Process Control and Dynamics - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Process Control and Dynamics - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Tips for Organizing and Writing Your Proposal Norhaniza binti Yusof with help from all other faculty members and numerous web sources. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 1 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Learning Outcomes: At the end of this talk, you will be able to: Apply tips for organizing and writing your proposal Understand general aspects and philosophy of a proposal Organize your proposal according

to the desired UTM format www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 2 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Is a MSc/PhD right for me? Making the decision to pursue a MSc/PhD degree is a significant commitment. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 3 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Is a MSc/PhD right for me? You will be committing several years of your life to a process

with no certain outcome. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 4 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Is a MSc/PhD right for me? Ph.D. thesis research is a task to ensure that the student can later take on independent, long-term research commitments. If a Ph.D. student does not intend to be a researcher, the Ph.D. thesis work is not worth the effort in general. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 5 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students

Is a MSc/PhD right for me? Expectation is high. PhD thesis represents a substantial work. "We have a student working on this area for his or her Ph.D. thesis." .....this is usually sufficient to convince people that the problem is somehow going to be solved. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 6 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 7 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students

Differences between under- and post-graduate theses In short, a thesiswhether undergraduate or postgraduate is evidence of the candidates capacity to carry out independent research under the guidance of a supervisor, and to analyse and communicate the significant results of that work. The candidate for higher degrees must demonstrate, in addition, mastery of the literature and indicate clearly which is his or her original work, and why it is significant. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 8 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students A PhD is awarded mainly as the result of your making a genuine contribution to the state of knowledge in a field of your choice. Even though this is not the Nobel Prize yet, getting

the degree means you have added something to what has previously been known on the subject you have researched. But first you have to prove you are capable of making such a contribution, and therefore write a research proposal that meets certain standards. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 9 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students The goal of a research proposal (RP) is to present and justify a research idea you have and to present the practical ways in which you think this research should be conducted. Basically, your RP has to answer three big questions: i. What research project will you undertake ii. why is important to know that thing iii. How will you proceed to make that research.

www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 10 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Where do I start? 1. Get a supervisor If you are given the opportunity to select your supervisors do it wisely. Make sure you have selected supervisors who are supportive of you and are willing to assist you in successfully completing your research. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global

11 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Where do I start? 1. Get a supervisor www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 12 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Where do I start? 1. Get a supervisor www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 13

Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Where do I start? 1. Get a supervisor www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 14 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students 2. Find a topic/area of research Where can I find a topic/area of research? From your supervisor Your own idea www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global

15 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students From where does a supervisor finds a topic/area of research for MSc/PhD? From Industry Continuation of his Msc/PhD thesis From seminar/conferences FRGS/Science Fund/RMC topics Continuities of previous PSM/Msc/PhD thesis Part of Msc/PhD projects Other lecturers Others

www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 16 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students How can I create my own topic? Industrial training experience Interest Previous thesis Discussion Anywhere possible www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 17

Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students How can I create my own topic? Tips.. High curiosity Researching will be much easier if our underlying with curiosity so great. The greater the sense of wonder, the higher the curiosity, the more excited you dig the idea too. Paused for a moment However, sometimes, too many ideas also make research difficult because we are wrong or mistaken choose our research topics. To that end, when they want to define a topic, you should pause to think about what topics will be selected.

www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 18 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students But, my humble suggestion is Get the title from your supervisor www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 19 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Why do I need a research

proposal? To convince others that your project is worth doing To demonstrate expertise and competency To serve as a contract To serve as a planning tool www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 20 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students A research proposal is a document written by a researcher that provides a detailed description of the proposed program. Supervisors / examiners will expect that: You have identified a worthwhile problem or question which has not been previously answered.

You are going to solve the problem or answer the question. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 21 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Ask yourself.. What is the research question? Is it a good question? Has it been answered before? Is it a useful question to work on? Will this study generate new knowledge? Will the study make an adequate / significant contribution to knowledge? Will the study fill gaps in existing knowledge or resolve current controversies? Generally a study should do more than just generate new knowledge. The knowledge should in some way be useful, such as development new

product or process, or addressing an area of controversy. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 22 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Organization of the proposal - A good proposal should consist of the first three (3) chapters of the thesis. Tittle Abstract Introduction Background, Problem statement/research question/objectives, scope

Literature review Methodology Expected results References www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 23 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Of course, it should be written in a future tense since it is a proposal. To turn a good proposal into the first three chapters of the dissertation consists of changing the tense from future tense to past tense (from "This is what I would like to do" to "This is what I did") and making any changes based on the way you actually carried out the research when compared to how you proposed to do it.

www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 24 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 25 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students If at first you do not succeed, try, try, try, try, try, try, try, try, try, again www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 26

Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Where should I start? www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 27 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Title Write this LAST! The title should be grammatically correct. Contains important and pertinent keywords found in abstract. Reflect the actual research issues addressed in the study.

Examples: Radiation Modified Polymeric Material for Active Packaging Application. Radiation Modified Polyethylene Film for Antimicrobial Active Packaging Application. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 28 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 29 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students

Abstract Write this LAST! Abstracts should be one page Model after a paper in your field Written to attract readers to your proposal, gives a good initial impression. Summary of the contents of the thesis / should accurately reflects the study that was conducted. Answers to these questions should be found in the abstract: What did you do? Why did you do it? What question were you trying to answer? How did you do it? What did you learn?

www.cheme.utm.my Brief statement of the problem or objectives State methods. Concise description of research method and design State major results. Summary of the major findings and brief conclusion. innovative entrepreneurial global 30 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Abstract grading Unacceptable Several major aspects of project/research are missing. Incomplete description of project.

Student displays a lack of understanding about how to write an abstract. Acceptable Abstract misses one or more major aspects of project/research. www.cheme.utm.my Moderate Good Very good Abstract contains most major aspects of

research/project. Abstract may be too technical and only understood by specialist in the discipline. Abstract contains all major aspects of research i.e. main purpose of the project, its importance, methodology /approach, most significant results or findings, main conclusions and/or recommendation. Abstract contains references to all major aspects of

research i.e. main purpose of the project, its importance, methodology /approach, most significant results or findings, main conclusions and/or recommendation. General audience easily understands abstract. innovative entrepreneurial global 31 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Introduction The following are suggested topics that are usually covered in the introduction.

1.1 Background 1.2 Problem Statements 1.3 Objective 1.4 Scope www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 32 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Background General statement(s) about a field of research to provide reader with the setting for the problem to be reported. In general terms, what does your study address? Why is it important? Where does is fit in the overall field? Be sure to include in the introduction a clear statement of your hypothesis and how you are going to address it. Throughout the introduction you should use citations from the research literature to support your study. These citations should include but not be limited to research

presented in the literature review. Statement(s) that indicate the need for more investigation. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 33 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Research Question or Problem Statement What is current problem in your research area? 1. A concise statement of the question that your thesis tackles 2. Justification, by direct reference to previous work, that your question is previously unanswered. 3. You should succinctly/concisely state the problem that your thesis is going to address. You should also present relevant information about why this is an important problem. 4. Discussion of why it is worthwhile to answer this question. 5. Highlight the section with a heading using words such as

problem or question www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 34 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Objectives Very specific statements giving the purpose/objective of the study. Indicate clearly the variables of study. Keywords.to determine, to investigate, to study, to relate, to characterize, to establish, to verify, to examine .etc. Example: www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global

35 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Scope Focus your research very specifically. Don't try to have your research cover too broad an area. Usually a broadly defined project is not doable. By defining too broadly it may sound better to you, but there is a great chance that it will be unmanageable as a research project. Do one project for your dissertation and save the other projects for later in your career. Don't try to solve all of the problems in this one research project. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 36

Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Introduction, Research background, Problem Statement, Objective and Scope Unacceptable Very little background information or information is incorrect OR, does not give any information about what to expect in the thesis. Statement of problem is erroneous or irrelevant. Limited or no relevant explanation. Objective and scope are not

clear. Acceptable Some introductory information, but still missing some major points. OR, gives little information. Problem is partially identified. Limited relevant explanation. Objective and scope are partially defined. www.cheme.utm.my Moderate Introduction is nearly complete,

missing some minor points. Problem is sufficiently identified. Basic relevant explanation. Objective and scope are relevant. Good Introduction is complete and well written. Problem is sufficiently identified. Basic relevant explanation. Objective and scope are clear and relevant. innovative entrepreneurial global

Very good Introduction is complete and well written; provides all necessary background principles for the research project. Present a concise lead-in to the thesis. Problem is appropriately identified. Objective and scope are precise, clear and relevant. 37 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Literature review

The literature review should discuss all of the research that has been done on the subject. Describes what others have done and hence sets a benchmark for the current project. The literature review should end with a discussion of how the literature relates to your study. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 38 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Literature review You should not discuss all of the literature in-depth....group your literature according to some general topics and only discuss specific studies if they are landmark studies for your area of research.

www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 39 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Others tips for literature review Some supervisors do not expect a long literature review for the thesis proposal or the thesis - be sure you ask your supervisors! Make it a point to keep on top of your field of study by making regular visits to the library and to the electronic journals websites. Make sure that you have read and understood cited work. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 40

Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Others tips for literature review Organize your content according to ideas instead of individual publications. DO NOT simply quote or paraphrase the contents of published articles. Weave the information into focused views. Demonstrate your deeper understanding of the topic. DO NOT be tempted to summarize everything you have read; only include those relevant to your main points. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 41 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students

Literature reviewwhen? Make sure your proposal has a comprehensive review of the literature included. Many students tell me that "This is only the proposal. I'll do a complete literature search for the thesis. I don't want to waste the time now." But, this is the time to do it. Now, why would you want to wait? Now is the time to get informed and to learn from others who have preceded you! If you wait until you are writing the thesis it is too late.

You've got to do it some time so you might as well get on with it and do it now. You will probably want to add to the literature review when you're writing the final thesis. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 42 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Literature reviewwhen? www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 43 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Literature Review

Unacceptable Acceptable Poor understanding of topic, inadequate research or very little research. No external literature research. Acceptable understanding of topic, adequate research evident, sources cited. Insufficient

literature research or may contain unrelated materials. www.cheme.utm.my Moderate Good Analyze and Good summarize understanding of various literature topic, adequate reviews from research various evident, sources academic

cited. sources. Sufficient and Literature review relevant is missing a few literature important research reviews. innovative entrepreneurial global Very good Evaluate, critically analyze and summarize various literature reviews from various academic sources. Literature review is comprehensive

and takes into account the state of the art. 44 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Methodology/Methods/Design Description of your materials, procedure, calculations, technique, procedure, equipment, and calibration plots. Limitations, assumptions, and range of validity. Description of your analytical methods, including reference to any specialized statistical software. Information to allow the reader to assess the believability of your future results. Information needed by another researcher to replicate your experiment. www.cheme.utm.my

innovative entrepreneurial global 45 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Methodology/Methods/Design Change the tense from future tense to past tense and then make any additions or changes so that the methodology section truly reflects what you did. You have now been able to change sections from the proposal to sections for the dissertation. www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 46 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students Methodology

Unacceptable Missing several important explanations of materials and/or methodology. Not sequential. Most steps are missing or are confusing. Some procedural components generally described but are not replicable. Acceptable Materials and methodology nearly complete but still missing some important

experimental/ modelling details. Others may have difficulties following procedures some steps are understandable; but most are confusing and lack detail. Can replicate experiment if reader makes some inferences. www.cheme.utm.my Moderate Materials and methodology are explained with sufficient detail;

some lack detail or are confusing. Mostly easy to follow. Description of procedure makes it likely that the work can be reliably replicated. Good Materials and methodology are complete and justified. Mostly easy to follow. Description of procedure can be replicated. innovative entrepreneurial global Very good Materials and

methodology are formulated, selected, planed, and implemented appropriately and with justification. Logical and easily followed. Description of procedure is complete, ensuring that it can be replicated. 47 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students References All references cited, including those in Tables and Figure captions. No more, no less. Use consistent style throughout.

www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 48 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students As a conclusion? www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 49 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students A few words on form Format: Typography, layout Follow the Grad. School and library guidelines for a thesis (http://sps.utm.my/sps/images/academicresources/UTM Thesis Manual 2007.pdf)

Less than 200 (Masters) and 300 (PhD) pages Plan ahead! (e.g. do you really need 50 color figures?) Mechanics: Grammar Usage Punctuation spelling www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 50 Thesis Writing for UTM Postgraduate ChemE Students http://sps.utm.my/sps/images/academicresources/UTM Thesis Manual 2007.pdf

www.cheme.utm.my innovative entrepreneurial global 51

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