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Bridging our world. Intercultural awareness training. Summer 2018 Aims of the session To help improve your communication skills by introducing concepts of cultural difference and giving the opportunity to explore solutions. earning Outcome: Be better equipped to communicate
effectively across cultures. Intercultural Competence The capability to shift cultural perspective and adapt behavior to cultural commonality & difference Deep cultural self-awareness
Deep understanding of the experiences of people from different cultural communitiesin perceptions, values, beliefs, behavior and practices Ability to adaptor bridgeacross these various cultural differences
Culture can be broadly defined as a system of beliefs and values shared by a particular group of people. We dont see things as they are, but as we are Anais Nin Cultural Awareness means being aware of and understanding your own culture to help you achieve the same of other cultures Even if you are from an English speaking country, you should not assume that you are informed about other English speaking cultures.
Complex cultures-complex individuals Ignoring the complexity can lead to stereotyping or an us and them attitude to people from other cultures It is, therefore, important to respond to people according to how you find them and work out
how to communicate as you go along, if necessary Layers of Culture-what do we know about culture Exercise in Groups Write down aspects of the culture of the members of your group that are explicit (visible). Use a separate sheet for each culture or country
Ask the individuals from the particular culture to write down those that aspects that are tacit or implicit (invisible) Culture shock: The W Curve Culture Shock the W Curve Stage One - Honeymoon stage Feelings of anticipation and excitement. Differences are intriguing Stage Two - Distress phase Reality sets in-homesickness Stage Three Adjustment phase
Students may become critical of host culture and compare it unfavourably with their own Stage Four - Autonomy stage Students begin to appreciate the differences Stage Five - Independence stage Students move easily between cultures Culture Shock Key points You may move backwards and forwards between these stages
Not all of you will reach the Independence phase, depending on your length of stay and experiences Students who have good experiences are likely to adapt more quickly - they need guidance and help to solve problems and find their way around their new environment
8 Key Cultural Dimensions Task Focus Relationship Focus Strict Time
Flexible Time Explicit Communication Implicit Communication Achievement is important Status is important Egalitarian Hierarchical Emphasis on Individual Emphasis on Group Tolerant of uncertainty Preference for Certainty One Rule fits all Adapts to the situation
Challenges: Aspects of culture East Meets West: An Infographic Portrait by Yang Liu Complexity of expression Cultural Attitudes to Time Keeping Monochronic Good time keepers Punctual Keep to agendas Form a queue Focus on one thing at a
time See events as part of a sequence Quick pace Polychronic Regard lateness as being OK Social relationships more important than deadlines Can do several things at the same time Do not queue
Relaxed pace Where do you fit in? Are you typical of your culture? Countries Monochronic UK Northern Europe North America China / Japan Polychronic
Latin America Africa Southern Europe Arab States Communication Low Context High Context Keep to the point Talk around the point Use only Avoid offending
necessary number of words Try not to lose Say what they face mean Where do you fit in? Are you typical of your culture? Countries Low context USA Scandinavian/
Nordic Countries France/Germany UK Iran High Context Spain/Greece/Italy Latin America Arab States Japan /China Malaysia Poland
Language Oral Spoken word is most important Talks things through Thinks out loud Use written word only for record keeping Literal Values the written word
above all Tends to think before speaking Where do you fit in? Are you typical of your culture? Countries Oral Arab States Latin America Southern Europe Ireland
USA Literal Scandinavia Northern Europe UK Iran Attitudes to Risk Risk Avoiders High uncertaintyavoidance Eschew risk Dislikes ambiguity
Risk Takers Low uncertaintyavoidance Admire and reward risk takers Okay with ambiguity Where do you fit in? Are you typical of your culture? Countries Risk Avoiders Japan
China, esp. Hong Kong Singapore Risk Takers Denmark Mexico Pakistan Much of Northern and Western Europe fall somewhere between the two Values
Individualist Loose ties between individuals in society Not highly integrated into groups, e.g. clans, tribes Individual responsibility Value initiative Collectivist Strong ties between individuals in society
Highly integrated into groups, e.g. clans, tribes Collective responsibility Demand Loyalty to the group Where do you fit in? Are you typical of your culture? Countries Individualist
UK North America Northern Europe Australia Collectivist Iran West and East Africa Singapore Southern and Central America China
Tactile Where do you fit in? Are you typical of your culture? Countries Neutral Japan China UK Africa Emotive
Southern Europe Latin America Ireland Arab States Structure of Society Low Power-Distance Aim for equality Try to reach consensus in decision making Bosses are informal and easy to talk to
Business titles not used in conversation High PowerDistance Hierarchical Bosses have final say Bosses are not easy to approach Use of formal titles Where do you fit in? Are you typical of your culture?
Countries Low PowerDistance Scandinavia UK USA High PowerDistance Malaysia Southern Europe India Frans Trompenaars Accident Scenario
You are riding in a car driven by a close friend. He hits a pedestrian. You know he was going at least 35 miles per hour in an area of the city where the maximum allowed speed is 20 miles per hour. There are no witnesses. His lawyer says that if you testify under oath that he was only driving 20 miles per hours it may save him from serious consequences. What right has your friend to expect you to protect him? 1a My friend has a definite right as a friend to expect me to testify to the lower figure. 1b He has some right as a friend to expect me to testify to the lower figure 1c he has no right as a friend to expect me to testify to a lower figure What do you think you would do in view of the obligations of a sworn witness and the obligation to your friend: 1d Testify that he was going 20 miles an hour 1e Not testify that he was going 20 miles an hour
Give and take What are the issues and challenges involved in working in multi-cultural settings? How do we resolve these? Challenges of working in multicultural settings Communication and Language
Cultural Patterns of Behaviour Cultural traditions and Religious Practice Body Language
Dealing with Conflict How do you respond? Recognise Differences Build your own self awareness
Acknowledge own prejudice Dont assume your interpretation is correct Give your time and attention when communicating Dont make assumptions about patterns of behaviour Acknowledge your mistakes Discussion Question How would you personally FEEL if you had a disagreement or conflict with another person and that individual did not
want to directly discuss the situation or problem with you? Uncomfortable 1 2 3 4 5 6 Comfortable Discussion Question How would you personally FEEL expressing strong emotions such as anger during a disagreement or conflict at work?
Uncomfortable 1 2 3 4 5 6 Comfortable Would you.. Individuals were asked how they would behave if they felt upset about something at work. Would you express your feelings openly at work? Percentage of respondents who would not show emotions Openly 15%
Kuwait 18% 19% 43% Oman Egypt US
Copyright, 1998-2012, Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., IDI, LLC, used with permission 49% 51% 74% Canada India Japan
81% Ethiopia Proverbs The first to raise their voice loses the argument --Chinese proverb What is nearest the heart is nearest the mouth --Irish Proverb After a storm, fair weather; after sorrow, joy --Russian proverb Silence produces peace, and peace produces safety --Swahili proverb
Learning About Other Cultures; Use the process Describe, Interpret, Evaluate ENRICH Your explanatory model how does this fit the big picture? INVESTIGATE Local background any explanations
for this attitude? OBSERVE An event or behaviour look at what they just did! REFLECT On the motivation what might make them do that?
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