Praxis Study Guide 3

Praxis Study Guide 3

Praxis Study Guide 3 Erin Rainard Ceramic Terminology Sgraffito-a form of decoration made by scratching through a surface to reveal a lower layer of a contrasting color Wedging-process similar to kneading dough, loosens the clay circulating its moisture throughout Scoring-process of creating shallow grooves into surface of wet or leather hard clay in cross-hatch pattern before applying slurry and joining pieces

Insulating Firebrick; IFB; Softbrick-porous firebrick with insulating values much higher than hardbrick Ceramic Terminology Hardbrick- hard, dense firebrick generally used only in high-stress areas of kiln (floor, burner ports, flues, bagwall) and for corrosive firing processes (salt, soda, wood) Fire Clay- highly refractory secondary clays with minimal fluxes and usually fairly coarse particle size-low shrinkage, buff-color, often nonplastic Greenware-air-dry unfired clay

Printmaking Terminology Printmaking Plastalina has what kind of harmful substance in it? Sulfur Intaglio-a steel needle for engraving on a bare copper plate without acid Aquatint-a print resembling watercolor, produced from a copper plate etched with nitric Photogravure-an image produced from a photographic negative transferred to a metal plate and etched in Dry point-a steel needle for engraving on a bare copper plate without acid

Photography Terminology Aperture-circle-shaped opening in a lens through which light passes to strike the film. The size of the aperture is expressed as an f-number, like f/8 or f/11 Daguerrotype-an obsolete photographic process in which a picture made on a silver surface is sensitized with iodine; and developed by exposure to mercury vapor Depth of field-the distance between the nearest and furthest objects in a photograph that are considered acceptably sharp Shutter speed-controls the duration of an exposure-the faster the shutter speed, the shorter the exposure time Film speed- a measurement of films sensitivity to light. More sensitive (faster) films have higher ISO numbers and require less exposure in order to make a properlyexposed picture

Painting Terminology Encaustic-a method of painting, which uses pigments melted with wax and fixed or fused to the painting surface with heat Paint extender-product that extends the drying time, and paint Fat over lean-the principle in oil painting that suggests each layer of paint should contain more oil than the one beneath. Awareness of this concept helps ensure permanence Rabbit Skin Glue- traditional glue for fabric support on panels. It seals porous fabric and isolates it from ground or oil paints Frottage- meaning to rub a crayon or other tool onto paper or other material,

which is placed onto a textured surface, in order to create the texture of that surface on the paper Painting Terminology Sfumato-Italian term meaning smoke, describing a very delicate gradation of light and shade in the modeling of figures; often ascribed to Da Vincis work Chiaroscuro-an effect of contrasted light and shadow created by light falling unevenly or from a particular direction on something Isocephaly-having the heads of all figures on approximately the same level Atmospheric-aerial perspective- in art, the perception of depth in nature

as enhanced by haze in the atmosphere; how the appearance of objects is altered over distance by the effects of the air between the viewer and the object Painting Terminology CMYK-Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Key (black). The CMYK system is used for printing. For mixing of pigment, it is better to use the secondary colours, since they mix subtractivley instead of additively Croquis- to make a quick sketch Sculpture Terminology

Assemblage-a type of modern sculpture consisting of combining multiple objects or forms, often found objects Kinetic art-art, as sculptural constructions, having movable parts activated by motor, wind, hand pressure, or other direct means Armature-a skeletal framework built as a support on which a clay, wax, or plaster figure is constructed Tessera-one of the small pieces used in mosaic work Esquisse-the first sketch of a picture or model of a statue Content Knowledge (taken from online study guide for

Praxis 2) Two secondary colors mixed together-brown Camera Obscura is an optical device used, for example, in drawing or for entertainment. It is one of the inventions leading to photography. Artists who used this: Jan Vermeer, Canaletto, Guardi, and Paulul Sandby Egg Tempera-used by ancient Egyptians and Greeks and perfected by the icon painters during the last 100 years of the old Byzantine Empire (400 AD-1202 AD) Mies Van der Rohe and Lilly Reich designed the Barcelona chair

Content Knowledge Tapestry-woven wall hangings Embroidery-the art of working raised and ornamental designs in threads of silk, cotton, gold, silver, or other material, upon any woven fabric, leather, paper, etc. with a needle Romantic Era, characterized by these words-heroic, turbulent, and poetic Use of the stained glass in a cathedral-luxury item, used by the Early Christian artist for allegorical purposes Golden Section or ratio-between two portions of a line in which the lesser of the two is to the greater as the greater is to the sum of both.

Ancient Egyptian and Grecian proportions still used today Content Knowledge First bronze statue created since Roman times, Donatellos David Acrylic paint is used in water printing Wedge the clay to loosen clay and circulate the moisture throughout and to remove the air Diego Rivera was known for painting social murals Early Greece statues were standing, facing forward and stiff Building of Versailles was the start of the Baroque Romans invented cement

Film speed is a measurement of films sensitivity to light Content Knowledge Benin sculpture is wood and bronze Color Fields are a style of abstract painting in which color dominates form an texture. Artists: Helen Frankenthaler, Mark Rothko, Clyford Still, Sam Gillam Mexican murals are painted in the theme of Social Realism Motif-a dominant idea or central theme Properties of stoneware: even heat distribution, super-durable, soakproof, cut resistant Monochrome printing-seen as meditative art. Painting that explores the

use of one color Content Knowledge Depression art-works of art and programs, funded by the US Treasury Dept., created to help provide economic relief to the citizens Most common position for Buddha in art-Lotus Positions Parchment paper used in the Book of Kells Bas-another word for low relief Roy Lichtenstein associated with the Pop art Movement Hagia Sophia was positioned in ribbed vault Doric Columns-thicker and shorter

Corinthians column-elaborate floral designs Ionic columns-tallest and thinnest. Tend to have scrolls at the tops Content Knowledge Serpent Mound found on the Ohio River is from the Hopewell Culture Elements of Art- form, value, texture, line, shape color, form Principles of Art-movement, unity, variety, balance, emphasis, contrast, proportion, pattern AP on art means artist proof

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