Equivalence in Translation A key concept in translation Equivalence centers around the processes interacting between the original source .text and translated text Types of Equivalence Referential equivalence is established when the) 1( words in the source language (SL) refer to the
same objects in the world as the words in the target language (TL) .g. book and in English refers . e Connotative equivalence is established when) 2 ( the words in both languages and texts trigger the . same associations and connotations Pragmatic equivalence refers to words in both) 3( languages having the same effect on the readers
. in both languages Types of Equivalence Types of Equivalence Contextual equivalence is established when) 4( words in both languages are used in the same . or similar contexts Formal equivalence refers to words in both) 5(
languages having similar phonological or .orthographic features Textual equivalence refers to aspects of) 6 ( cohesion and coherence which are similar in .both texts and languages Types of Equivalence Why is equivalence important in
?translation ?How is meaning reproduced in translation How is meaning reproduced in ?translation ?What is pragmatics The study of language in use. How utterances are used in communicative
situations and the way we interpret them in a context The study of meaning not as generated by the linguistic system but as conveyed and manipulated by participants in a communicative situation Two important concepts in pragmatics
a network of relations which organizes and create text concerned with how utterances are connected to each other Coherence and cohesion coherence Conceptual relationship underlying the surface text Underlying semantic relation
Readership property: readers evaluation of the text Implicit meaning Subjective: varies from reader to reader Making sense of the text cohesion Surface textual relationships such
as cohesive devices Linking words and expressions to other words and expressions. Text property: cohesive markers therefore etc. Explicit meaning Objective: automatic recognition Cannot create coherence
Example of a cohesive text I bought a Ford. The car in which President Wilson rode down the Champs Elysees was black. Black English has been widely discussed. (See Baker P 218) As for coherence see example P. 220 A Hero from Zero ?What is pragmatic equivalence
How a text makes sense to a given readership. We go beyond the textual level and see how utterances are used in communicative situations pragmatic equivalence tends to reproduce the context and text goals of the SL. "pragmatic equivalence subsumes all of the semio-pragmatic-communicative layers of communication." Examples of these semiotic and communicative
dimensions are genre, field, mode, tenor, text type and translation purpose (skopos). Examples )a .Eng ST: He was armed to his teeth-1 :Arb TT1-2 :Arb TT2, (optimal)-3 )b .Eng ST: He kicked the bucket-1
: Arb TT1-2 :Arb TT2, (optimal)-3 Example for translation )( )( )( )( ()) Amulet Give me an amulet that keeps intelligence with you Red when you love, and rosier red
And when you love not, pale and blue : )( : )( ) / : : //: / : / : ) : / : : )( : : )( : )( ) : : :
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