PowerPoint to accompany

PowerPoint to accompany

Chapter 9 Joints of the Skeletal System Articulations Functional junctions between bones Bind parts of skeletal system together Make bone growth possible Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction

1 Classification of Joints Fibrous Joints dense connective tissues connect bones between bones in close contact Cartilaginous Joints hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bones Synovial Joints most complex

allow free movement synarthrotic immovable amphiarthrotic slightly movable diarthrotic freely movable 2 Fibrous Joints 3 Types Syndesmosis

Suture Gomphosis Syndesmosis a sheet or bundle of fibrous tissue connects bones amphiarthrotic lies between tibia and fibula 3 Fibrous Joints Suture

between flat bones synarthrotic thin layer of connective tissue connects bones Gomphosis cone-shaped bony process in a socket tooth in jawbone synarthrotic 4 Cartilaginous Joints

2 Types Synchondrosis Symphysis Synchondrosis bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones epiphyseal plate (temporary) between manubrium and first rib synarthrotic 5

Cartilaginous Joints Symphysis pad of fibrocartilage between bones pubis symphysis joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae amphiarthrotic 6 Synovial Joints

diarthrotic joint cavity synovial fluid joint capsule synovial membrane bursae 7 Types of Synovial Joints

Ball-and-Socket Joint hip shoulder Condyloid Joint between metacarpals and phalanges 8 Types of Synovial Joints Gliding Joint between carpals between tarsals

Hinge Joint elbow between phalanges 9 Types of Synovial Joints Pivot Joint between proximal ends of radius and ulna Saddle Joint

between carpal and metacarpal of thumb 10 Types of Joint Movements abduction/adduction dorsiflexion/plantarflexion flexion/extension/hyperextension 11 Types of Joint Movements rotation/circumduction

supination/pronation 12 Types of Joint Movements eversion/inversion protraction/retractio n elevation/depression 13 Knee Joint

largest joint most complex medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia femur articulates anteriorly with patella modified hinge joint flexion/extension/little rotation strengthened by many ligaments and tendons menisci separate femur and tibia bursae

14 Life-Span Changes Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging Fibrous joints first to change; can strengthen over a lifetime Changes in symphysis joints of vertebral column diminish flexibility and decrease height Synovial joints lose elasticity Disuse hampers the blood supply Activity and exercise can keep joints functional longer 15

Clinical Application Joint Disorders Sprains damage to cartilage, ligaments, or tendons associated with joints forceful twisting of joint Bursitis inflammation of a bursa overuse of a joint Arthritis inflamed, swollen, painful joints Rheumatoid Arthritis Osteoarthritis

Gout 16

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