PowerPoint Sunusu

PowerPoint Sunusu

OSTEOLOGY BONES Kaan Ycel M.D., Ph.D. 26. February.2013 Tuesday 1

1.INTRODUCTION TO OSTEOLOGY Osteology (Gk, osteon, bone, logos, science) branch of medicine concerned with the development and diseases of bone tissue The human skeleton 206 bones in adults 2

The skeletal system may be divided into 2 functional parts: The axial skeleton head (cranium or skull) neck (hyoid bone and cervical vertebrae) trunk (ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and sacrum) The appendicular skeleton Limbs

including those forming the shoulde & pelvic girdles 3 Bone one of the hardest structures of the animal body calcification of its extracellular matrix some elasticity results from the organic matter

great rigidity results from their lamellous structures and tubes of inorganic calcium phosphate color in a fresh state pinkish-white externally, deep red within. 4

HISTOLOGY OF THE BONE sparse cells surrounded by an extracellular network/matrix 5 Osteoblasts secrete proteins into the matrix.

6 Mature bone is composed of proteins and minerals. 60% the weight of the bone mineral Rest - water & matrix. 90% of the matrix proteins collagen 1/3 of the bone weight very strong forms bone, cartilage, skin, and tendons.

High resolution image of cortical bone and single collagen fibril (inset) 7 Minerals of the matrix Mainly calcium phosphate & calcium carbonate Embedded in the protein network Provide hardness and compressive strength.

8 Matrix maintained by osteocytes Haversian systems or osteons concentric rings of osteocytes arranged around a central blood vessel.

9 Principal types of bone cells 1. 2. 3. 4. Osteogenic cells

Osteoblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts 10 Periosteum membrane surrounding the bone tissue

provides a route for the vasculature and nerve supply. participates in bone growth and repair. Endosteum lines the marrow cavity active during bone growth, repair, and remodeling covers trabeculae of spongy bone lines the inner surfaces of the central canals

11 CARTILAGES AND BONES The skeleton is composed of cartilages and bones. Cartilage resilient, semirigid form of connective tissue forms parts of the skeleton where more flexibility is required.

articulating of bones participating in a synovial joint capped with articular cartilage provides smooth, low-friction, gliding surfaces for free movement

12 Blood vessels do not enter cartilage avascular Diffusion bone /cartilage in the skeleton changes as the body grows younger a person the more cartilage bones of a newborn are soft and flexible because mostly composed of cartilage.

13 CARTILAGES AND BONES The skeleton is composed of cartilages and bones. The amount and kind of extracellular fibers in the matrix depends on the type of cartilage. Heavy weightbearing areas or areas prone to pulling forces

More collagen fibers, less flexible cartilage. 14 Functions of cartilage 1. support soft tissues 2. provide a smooth, gliding surface for bone articulations at joints 3. enable the development and growth of long bones.

15 Types of cartilage 1. Hyaline most common, matrix w/ moderate amount of collagen fibers articular surfaces of bones 2. Elastic large number of elastic fibers external ear

3. Fibrocartilage limited number of cells & ground substance amidst substantial amount of collagen fibers intervertebral discs 16 Bones function as supportive structures for the body

protectors of vital organs reservoirs of calcium and phosphorus levers on which muscles act to produce movement containers for blood-producing cells 17 TYPES OF BONES according to their shape gross anatomy

1) Long bones 2) Short bones tubular humerus in the arm cuboidal tarsus (ankle) carpus (wrist) 3) Flat bones protective functions flat bones of the cranium protect the brain

18 Classification of Bones 4) Irregular bones various shapes other than long, short, or flat bones of the face 19

Classification of Bones 5) Sesamoid bones patella or knee cap protect the tendons from excessive wear often change the angle of the tendons as they pass to their attachments. 20

Long bones develop by replacement of hyaline cartilage plate endochondral ossification a shaft diaphysis - two ends epiphyses Metaphysis a part of the diaphysis adjacent to the epiphyses. Diaphysis encloses the marrow cavity. 21

2 types of bones according to histological features compact bone & spongy (trabecular) bone relative amount of solid matter # & size of the spaces they contain 22 All bones have a superficial thin layer of compact bone around a central mass of spongy bone

except where the spongy bone is replaced by a medullary (marrow) cavity. Spongy bone found @ expanded heads of long bones + fills most irregular bones. Compact bone forms outer shell of all bones + shafts in long bones. 23

Bone Markings and Formations Bone markings appear wherever tendons, ligaments, and fascias are attached or where arteries lie adjacent to or enter bones. Other formations occur in relation to the passage of a tendon (often to direct the tendon or improve its leverage) or to control the type of movement occurring at a joint. 24

Bone Markings and Formations Surfaces of the bones are not smooth. Bones display elevations, depressions and holes. The surface features on the bones are given names to distinguish and define them. 25 Vasculature and Innervation of Bones

Bones are richly supplied with blood vessels. Veins accompany arteries. Nerves accompany blood vessels supplying bones. 26 SKULL BONES 27

Skull is supported on the summit of the vertebral column, and is of an oval shape, wider behind than in front. It is composed of a series of flattened or irregular bones which, with one exception (the mandible), are immovably jointed together. It is divisible into two parts: (1) cranium, which lodges and protects the brain, consists of 8 bones (2) skeleton of the face, of 14

28 Occipital bone at the back and lower part of the cranium trapezoid in shape and curved on itself. pierced by a large oval aperture, the foramen magnum, cranial cavity communicates with the vertebral canal through the foramen magnum

29 30 Parietal Bones form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium each bone irregularly quadrilateral in form external surface convex, smooth

31 Frontal Bone @front of the skull. Forms the forehead. Enters into the formation of the roofs of the orbital and nasal cavities. 32

Temporal Bones at the sides and base of the skull. consist of the pathway to the inner ear and contributes to the formation of the jaw with the mandible. 33 Sphenoid Bone at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of

the occipital. median portion or body, two great and two small wings extending outward from the sides of the body, and two pterygoid processes which project from it below. supplies the bed for the pituitary gland. 34 Ethmoid bone

exceedingly light and spongy cubical in shape at the anterior part of the base of the cranium between the two orbits, at the roof of the nose contributes to each of these cavities. 35 Cranial Fossae

Anterior cranial fossa occupied by the inferior and anterior parts of the frontal lobes of the brain shallowest cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa butterfly-shaped central part composed of the

sella turcica on the body of the sphenoid large, depressed lateral parts on each side Posterior cranial fossa largest and deepest cranial fossa formed mostly by the occipital

36 Facial Bones Nasal Bones o two small oblong bones, varying in size form in different individuals o placed side by side @

middle & upper part of the face o form, by their junction, the bridge of the nose. Maxill (Upper Jaw) o largest bones of the face, excepting mandible o form the whole of the upper jaw.

Form the boundaries of 3 cavities o roof of the mouth 37 Facial Bones Lacrimal Bone smallest & most fragile bone of the face at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit

Zygomatic Bone (Malar Bone) small and quadrangular at the upper and lateral part of the face forms prominence of the cheek part of the lateral wall & floor of the orbit. Zygomatic arch zygomatic process of the temporal bone

temporal process of the zygomatic bone 38 Facial Bones Palatine Bone @ back part of the nasal cavity. contributes to the walls of three cavities 1) floor and lateral wall of the nasal cavity

2) roof of the mouth 3) floor of the orbit. Inferior Nasal Concha extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. 39 Facial Bones

Vomer in the median plane thin, somewhat quadrilateral in shape forms hinder & lower part of the nasal septum. Mandible (Lower Jaw) largest and strongest bone of the face serves for the reception of the lower teeth.

40 Facial Bones Hyoid Bone shaped like a horseshoe suspended from the tips of the styloid processes of the temporal bones.

41 42 43 44 45

Ribs (L. costae) curved flat bones form most of the thoracic cage. 3 types of ribs: True (vertebrocostal) ribs (1st-7th ribs): directly to the sternum. False (vertebrochondral) ribs (8th, 9th, and usually 10th ribs):

indirect with the sternum Floating (vertebral, free) ribs (11th, 12th, and sometimes 10th ribs): No connection with the sternum 46 Typical ribs (3rd-9th) have the following components: Head

one facet for articulation with the numerically corresponding vertebra one facet for the vertebra superior to it Neck Tubercle articulates with the corresponding transverse process of the vertebra. Body (shaft) .

47 Costal cartilages prolong the ribs anteriorly and contribute to the elasticity of the thoracic wall, providing a flexible attachment for their anterior ends. 48

Intercostal spaces separate the ribs and their costal cartilages from one another. The spaces are named according to the rib forming the superior border of the spacefor example, the 4th intercostal space lies between ribs 4 and 5. There are 11 intercostal spaces and 11 intercostal nerves. Intercostal spaces are occupied by intercostal muscles and membranes, and two sets (main and collateral) of intercostal blood vessels and nerves, identified by the same number assigned to the space.

49 50 STERNUM G. sternon, chest Has three parts: 1. Manubrium

2. Body 3. Xiphoid process 51 VERTEBRAL COLUMN In an adult typically consists of 33 vertebrae arranged in five regions: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal. The vertebrae gradually become larger as the vertebral column

descends to the sacrum and then become progressively smaller toward the apex of the coccyx. The change in size is related to the fact that successive vertebrae bear increasing amounts of the body's weight as the column descends. 52

The vertebrae reach maximum size immediately superior to the sacrum, which transfers the weight to the pelvic girdle at the sacroiliac joints. 53 The vertebral column is flexible because it consists of many relatively small bones, called vertebrae (singular = vertebra), that are separated

by resilient intervertebral (IV) discs. 54 Vertebrae vary in size and other characteristics from one region of the vertebral column to another, and to a lesser degree within each region; however, their basic structure is the same. A typical vertebra consists of a vertebral body, a vertebral arch, and seven processes.

55 vertebral body anterior part of the bone that gives strength to the vertebral column and supports body weight. vertebral arch posterior to the vertebral body. vertebral arch & posterior surface of the vertebral body form

walls of the vertebral foramen. 56 57 58 7 cervical vertebrae

characterized mainly by their small size and the presence of a foramen in each transverse process , bifid spinous process 12 thoracic vertebrae characterized by their articulated ribs , spinous process projecting

inferiorly five lumbar vertebrae, characterized by their large size 59 60

BONES OF THE UPPER LIMB & THE SHOULDER 61 CLAVICLE (TR. KPRCK KEM) The clavicle (collar bone) connects the upper limb to the trunk.

The shaft of the clavicle has a double curve in a horizontal plane. 62 CLAVICLE (TR. KPRCK KEM) Its medial half articulates with the manubrium of the sternum. Its lateral half articulates with the scapula. These curvatures increase the resilience of the clavicle and give

it the appearance of an elongated capital S. 63 The clavicle: increases the range of motion of the limb. affords protection to the neurovascular bundle supplying the upper limb. transmits shocks (traumatic impacts) from the upper limb to the axial

skeleton. 64 Scapula (Tr. Krek kemii) The scapula (shoulder blade) is a triangular flat bone that lies on the posterolateral aspect of the thorax. The scapula has an articular surface; a glenoid cavity (G. socket) for the articulation with the head of the humerus.

65 HUMERUS largest bone in the upper limb articulates with the scapula at the glenohumeral joint articulates with the radius and ulna at the elbow joint.

The proximal end of the humerus has a head, surgical and anatomical necks, and greater and lesser tubercles. 66 HUMERUS spherical head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid

cavity of the scapula. surgical neck of the humerus, a common site of fracture, is the narrow part distal to the head and tubercles. distal end of the humerus makes up the condyle of the humerus.

67 BONES OF THE FOREARM The two forearm bones serve together to form the second unit of an articulated mobile strut (the first unit being the humerus), with a mobile base formed by the shoulder, that positions the hand. 68

ULNA stabilizing bone of the forearm medial and longer of the two forearm bones. Its more massive proximal end is specialized for articulation with the humerus proximally and the head of the

radius laterally. 69 RADIUS lateral and shorter of the two forearm bones. Its proximal end includes a short head, neck. Proximally, the head of the radius is concave

for articulation with the humerus during flexion and extension of the elbow joint. The head also articulates with the ulna. The shaft of the radius, in contrast to that of the ulna, gradually enlarges as it passes distally. 70

The distal end of the radius accommodates the head of the ulna. Its lateral aspect becomes increasingly ridge-like, terminating distally in the radial styloid process. 71 Bones of the hand The wrist, or carpus, is composed of eight carpal bones (carpals)

arranged in proximal and distal rows of four. The proximal surfaces of the distal row of carpals articulate with the proximal row of carpals, and their distal surfaces articulate with the metacarpals. 72 The metacarpus forms the skeleton of the palm of the hand between the carpus and the phalanges.

It is composed of five metacarpal bones (metacarpals). The proximal bases of the metacarpals articulate with the carpal bones, and the distal heads of the metacarpals articulate with the proximal phalanges and form the knuckles. 73 Each digit has three phalanges except for the first (the thumb), which has only two.

Each phalanx has a base proximally, a shaft (body) and a head distally. 74 BONES OF THE LOWER LIMB & THE PELVIC GRIDLE

75 The skeleton of the lower limb (inferior appendicular skeleton) may be divided into two functional components: 1. pelvic girdle 2. bones of the free lower limb. 76

Pelvic girdle a ring of bones that connects the vertebral column to the two femurs. The primary functions of the pelvic girdle are bearing and transfer of weight secondary functions include protection and support of abdominopelvic viscera and housing and attachment for structures of the genital and urinary systems. 77

In the mature individual, the pelvic girdle is formed by three bones: Right and left hip bones (coxal bones; pelvic bones): large, irregularly shaped bones, each of which develops from the fusion of three bones, the ilium, ischium, and pubis. 78 Hip Bone

The mature hip bone (L. os coxae) is the large, flat pelvic bone formed by the fusion of three primary bonesilium, ischium, and pubis. 79 The acetabulum (L., shallow vinegar cup) is the large cupshaped cavity or socket on the lateral aspect of the hip bone that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint. All three primary bones forming the hip bone contribute to the

formation of the acetabulum. 80 SACRUM The wedged-shaped sacrum (L. sacred) is usually composed of five fused sacral vertebrae in adults. It is located between the hip bones and forms the roof and posterosuperior wall of the posterior half of the pelvic cavity.

The sacral canal is the continuation of the vertebral canal in the sacrum. 81 Coccyx (tail bone) Small triangular bone usually formed by fusion of the 4 rudimentary coccygeal vertebrae. Remnant of the skeleton of the embryonic taillike caudal eminence. Does not participate with the other vertebrae in support of the body

weight when standing; however, when sitting it may flex anteriorly somewhat, indicating that it is receiving some weight. 82 FEMUR Longest and heaviest bone in the body Transmits body weight from the hip bone to the tibia when a person is standing.

Consists of a shaft (body) and two ends, superior or proximal and inferior or distal. 83 BONES OF THE LEG The tibia and fibula are the bones of the leg. The tibia articulates with the condyles of the femur superiorly and the talus inferiorly and in so doing transmits the body's weight.

The fibula mainly functions as an attachment for muscles, but it is also important for the stability of the ankle joint. 84 TIBIA (SHINE BONE) on the anteromedial side of the leg, nearly second largest bone parallel to the fibula

anterior border of the tibia -most prominent border. tibia & adjacent medial surface subcutaneous throughout their lengths commonly known as the shin

periosteal covering and overlying skin vulnerable to bruising. 85 TIBIA (SHINE BONE) Inferior surface of the shaft & lateral surface of medial malleolus articulate with the talus.

Interosseous membrane unites the two leg bones. Inferiorly, the tibia articulates with the distal end of the fibula. 86 87 FIBULA posterolateral to the tibia

slender tibiofibular syndesmosis no function in weight-bearing serves mainly for muscle attachment. distal end enlarges prolonged as lateral malleolus proximal end an enlarged head superior to a small neck. 88

PATELLA (KNEE CAP) largest sesamoid bone in the body embedded in the quadriceps femoris tendon. joint between the patella and femur share the same articular cavity w/ the joint between femur & tibia patellar ligament connects the patella to the tibia.

89 BONES OF THE FOOT Tarsus (7 bones) Metatarsus (5 bones) Phalanges (14 phalanges) 90

Calcaneus (L., heel bone) is the largest and strongest bone in the foot. When standing, the calcaneus transmits the majority of the body's weight from the talus to the ground. 91 Bones of the foot The metatarsus (anterior or distal foot, forefoot) consists of five metatarsals that are numbered from the medial side of the foot.

The 14 phalanges are as follows: the 1st digit (great toe) has 2 phalanges (proximal and distal); the other four digits have 3 phalanges each: proximal, middle, and distal. 92 93

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