The American Revolution Chapter 6 1776 -1783 Chapter
The American Revolution Chapter 6 1776 -1783 Chapter 6 The American Revolution 8.H.5 -The ideas of the Enlightenment and dissatisfaction with colonial rule led English colonists to write the Declaration of Independence and launch the American Revolution.
Chapter 6 Vocabulary Proclamation - an order issued by a government Ally - a country that helps another country in time of war Blockade - a military action that closes a port Mercenary - a soldier hired into foreign service, ex. Hessians/Germans Deserter - leave army without permission Privateer - private ship used in war Guerrilla Warfare - irregular soldier, usually politically motivated Ambush - surprise attack
Ratify formally approve Neutral taking no sides in a conflict January Thomas Paines Common Sense July 4 Declaration of Independence July British forces
arrive in New York - 1776 August Continental Army Defeated in NY December 26 Washington crosses Delaware
River & captures Trenton December Ben Franklin sent to make allies with France February France signs treaty with US to help
May British capture Charlestown South Carolina July British take Ft. Ticonderoga Devastating Americans, but Lafayette arrives from France African American Elizabeth Freeman sues for her freedom
in Massachusetts, creating prohibition of slavery there September Washington defeated at Brandywine October also defeated at Germantown Philadelphia is lost to the British 1777
October American victory at Saratoga 1778 September Treaty of Paris signed 1780
Americans lose many battles in South, but this is a heavy toll on the British Army 1781 October American and French forces
are victorious at Yorktown, Virginia 1783 December Washington retires his command and returns to Mt. Vernon EXTRA! EXTRA! Read all about it!
Revolutionary War Reporters In the 1700s there were no computers, TV, or radio. People usually communicate either by word of mouth or by reading the newspapers of the day. Below are links to examples of newspapers of the day. Ben Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette -January 2, 1750 http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/ past/past.html The Boston Gazette -Monday, October 7, 1776
http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/ past/past2.html The Massachusetts Centinel -Saturday, April 24, 1790 http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/ past/past3.html Read all about it! These newspaper Chronicles let you experience first-hand the excitement and uncertainty of the American Revolution as it happened. Click on a city to read about the riveting historical headlines that shaped the war and America.
www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/chronicle.html BOSTON 1774 Will bitter relations between America and Britain continue to steep? PHILADELPHIA 1776 America declares independence - will the colonists' military be strong enough to defend such a daring proclamation? TRENTON 1776 Could the fervor of freedom be waning?
SARATOGA 1777 Will hope be reborn for Americans? YORKTOWN 1781 The world turned upside down indeed! Will this be the beginning of the end? American Strengths and Weaknesses The colonists are fighting for
independence / knew the ground George Washington can inspire his men to fight France will aide the colonies with weapons, supplies and their navy Lack of supplies, food, and money. Needed more soldiers / Terms of service ran out
British Strengths and Weaknesses The British have an experienced professional army Outnumber the Continental Army The British army is well supplied with equipment and weapons Hired soldiers are fighting for money.
Supplies had to travel 3,000 miles across the Atlantic Ocean The Strategy of War The Strategy of War American Colonies Keep the Colonial Army together Washington seeks to stretch the British army
away from supply lines Harass the enemy, defeat the British in a major battle Get allies to help win! Britain Seeks to destroy the Colonial Army Regain control of the colonies by region
Take the fight to the Colonial Army using European war tactics Use loyalists support against the colonies Phase I: The Northern Campaign [1775-1776] Phase II:
NY & PA [1777-1778] New York City in Flames (1776) Nathan Hale Acted as a spy for Patriots (disguised himself as Dutch schoolteacher) Caught and hung Last words: I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my
country. These are the times that try mens souls Thomas Paine, The Crisis The Crisis These are the times that try mens souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will in this crisis shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of
man and woman. The Battle of Trenton Washington Crosses the Delaware River Link - http://mrnussbaum.com/history-2-2/battle_of_trenton/ Battle of Trenton, Christmas 1776 Battle of Trenton British settle into New York for the winter of 1776-1777 Left some troops in Princeton and Trenton, New Jersey
Washington and men stationed across Delaware River Christmas night Washington takes 2,400 troops across the river and surprise attacks the Hessians the next day. Captured 900 Hessians Before British reinforcements arrive, Washington takes troops to Princeton and drives out British there, as well. Battle of Saratoga TURNING POINT OF THE WAR!!! Before reaching Albany, British
General Burgoyne was surrounded by the American army and running out of supplies. Saratoga: Turning Point of the War?
A modern-day re-enactment Battle of Saratoga He surrendered to the Americans. The Battle of Saratoga Turning Point in the Revolutionary War Link -http://mrnussbaum.com/history-2-2/battle_of_saratoga/#video Battle of Saratoga
SIGNIFICANCE: France decidede to war. help Americans because they might have a chance of winning the war. Marquis de Lafayette brought aid to the U.S. and fought in many battles. Notes Saratoga Turning point of the American Revolution Benjamin Franklin persuaded France and Spain to join the fight
against Great Britain Motivation.revenge! Valley Forge, Pennsylvania Winter 1777-1778 To inspire the troops to keep fighting, Washington reads Thomas Paines The American Crisis. The French & Spanish I). French assisted in 1778
A). Curb British power B). Trade II). Spanish assist in 1779 A). Navy III). Multi-National alliance against Britain War at Sea Britain patrolled the Atlantic coast and used a blockade to keep ally ships from entering
American ports Continental Congress ordered construction of thirteen ships Most captured Four destroyed to keep from falling into British hands Congress allowed over 1,000 merchants to sail as privateers Attacked and profited from British ships
Patriot Victories Kings Mountain British tried to invade North Carolina 1,000 loyalists attack group of Patriot sharpshooters and are turned back In 1780, Nathaniel Green takes over for Horatio Gates In January 1781, he splits army in two Cowpens First division, led by Daniel Morgan, defeats British at Cowpens
Second division joins Francis Marions guerrilla raids Two divisions rejoin to face Cornwallis at Guilford Courthouse British victorious but suffer heavy casualties Cornwallis retreats to Yorktown, Virginia in April 1781 Britains Southern Strategy British now realize defeating
the Continental Army will not be easy. Plan a final, massive attack in the South to end the war. Rely on sea power and loyalist support. 1778 British send General Henry Clinton with 3,500 men from New York to Savannah, GA. May 1780, attack Charlestown, SC and take thousands of prisoners Americans worst defeat of the war General Charles Cornwallis takes over for Clinton and defeats American General Horatio Gates at Camden, SC As British travel through SC, they lack loyalists support and are harassed by
American strategy of guerrilla warfare American leader, Francis Marion aka Swamp Fox, perfects this strategy Phase III: The Southern Strategy [1780-1781] Battle of Yorktown After the Battle of Cowpens, Cornwallis marches British into Virginia in April of 1781 Washington sends Marquis de
Lafayette and Baron von Steuben to fight Cornwallis Cornwallis sets up camp at Yorktown, Virginia Battle of Yorktown (Cont.) July 1780, General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau arrives from France with 5,000 soldiers Autumn of 1780, Washington is just north of New York City waiting for second French fleet of ships In August 1781, Washington learns the second French fleet is
close but headed to Chesapeake Bay instead of New York City. Decides to attack British at Yorktown instead of New York City. Sent fake dispatches saying Washington was going to attack British at New York. British capture these messages, meanwhile Washington sneaks his army away from New York and heads south to Yorktown Battle of Yorktown (Cont.) At the end of September, Washington reaches Yorktown with 17,000 American and French troops compared to 8,000 British Second French fleet blocks a naval escape
British trapped against the York River October 11th, Washington begins bombarding Yorktown with artillery October 14th, American-French forces storm British defenses Cornwallis surrenders on October 19, 1781 The Battle of Yorktown, October 1781 Cornwallis Surrender at Yorktown: The World Turned Upside Down!
TREATY OF PARIS 1783 Fighting continues after Yorktown but soon British realize it is too expensive to keep fighting The Treaty of Paris Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay begin negotiations with British in April 1782. April 1783, Congress ratified an agreement to peace.
Treaty of Paris signed on September 3, 1783 Recognized United States as independent nation Gave territory from east coast to Mississippi River and Canada to Spanish Florida to America British would withdraw troops from new American territory Allowed Americans to fish off coast of Canada British merchants could collect debts owed by Americans Loyalists stolen property was returned North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783
Why did the Americans Win? Why the Americans Won: George Washington - organized the Continental Army. Steuben helped train inexperienced soldiers to fight Foreign Aid - France sent troops to help US fight Britain. Spain joined the US side also Knowledge of the land - Americans knew the land well where
the war took place. British could control coastal cities but couldn't control the interior part of the colonies Motivation - Americans were motivated because their way of life and freedoms were on the line. They wanted to own their land and their dream of liberty Legacy for Indians Generally thought it was not their war War for liberty and independence took liberty and independence away from Indians War against colonial oppression led to
colonization and oppression of Indians by the U.S. government Soldiers paid with Indian land, not free land Indians erased from history due to Paris Peace Treaty and the idea that the war was fought ONLY between colonists and British Women & African Americans Worked in camps on the lines Molly Pitcher Spies, messengers
Promises of freedom 5,000 for U.S., workers, few soldiers Rarely armed South feared of rebellions Revolutionary War Newspaper Project Write and report the complete paper from Loyalist view OR Patriot view Collaborate with Newspaper Staff on helping one another while working on your assignment: War Correspondent,
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