Blending Blending Elements of two input spaces are
Blending Blending Elements of two input spaces are projected into a third space, the blend, which contains elements of both, but is distinct from either one Non-linguistic blending Faces seen as combinations of parents features Unicorns, satyrs, etc. Wire crossing experiences Blending Blending Linguistic blending Linguistic expression evokes two domains, refers to
something new Traditional blends Chocoholic, cranapple, Monicagate, frenemies Brunch, motel, nectarine, smog Metaphor They constructed this theory from the ground up Youre wasting my time Blending Blending
Linguistic blending Grammatical/constructional blends 1. As far as his political views are concerned, its best not to say anything 2. As for his political views, its best not to say anything 3. As far as his political views, its best not to say anything 1. She sneezed 2. She knocked the napkin off the table 3. She sneezed the napkin off the table Blending
Grammatical blends Example: What are you craving for? What constructions seem to be blended in this example? Blending What are you craving for? What are you hungry for? What are you craving?
Blending Grammatical blends Middle voice examples Subject is acted upon 1. The piano plays beautifully 2. The car drives good/well 3. The soup eats like a meal Blending The piano plays beautifully 1. She plays the piano beautifully
2. The piano sounds beautiful Blending Blends can be thought of as both: Unconscious, unintentional, accidental Conscious, intentional, creative Blending
Unconscious, unintentional, accidental Non-linguistic examples Wire crossing combined motor routines Linguistic examples
Potentially + possibly posstentially Lapsi linguae Dear old queen Queer old dean Blending Conscious, intentional, creative Non-linguistic examples
Using familiar motor routine for novel task Wax on/wax off Linguistic examples Frenemies She sneezed the napkin off the table Blending
Blendingoperates on two Input mental spaces to yield a third space, the blend. The blend inherits partial structure from the input spaces and has emergent structure of its own (Fauconnier) Mental spaces Conceptual packets constructed as we think and talk, for purposes of local understanding and action (Fauconnier & Turner)
Sets of activated neuronal assemblies Mappings/interconnection between spaces corresponds to coactivation of a certain kind Blending Input spaces background conceptions necessary for building up or understanding blend Blended space a mental space which combines elements of input spaces
Generic space common ground between inputs Cross-space mapping links between elements in the input and blended spaces Blending Person you Interact with Friend
shared activities blend Blending Sources of emergent structure: Composition: juxtaposition of inputs creates new relations.
Completion: knowledge of background frames allows composite structure to be viewed as part of a larger selfcontained structure in the blend. Elaboration: running the blend using blended space to solve problems Blending Monk Problem: A Buddhist monk begins at dawn one day walking up a mountain, reaches the top at sunset, meditates at the top for several days until one dawn when he begins to walk back to the foot of the mountain, which he reaches at sunset. Making no assumptions
about his starting or stopping or about his pace during the trips, prove that there is a place on the path which he occupies at the same hour of the day on the two separate journeys. (Koestler 1964): Blending Blending Input 1 Input 2 blend
Blending The boat race example: In 1993 a catamaran, Great America II, sailed from San Francisco to Boston taking the same route followed in 1853 by the clipper, Northern Light. Blending At this point, Great America II is 4.5 days ahead of Northern Light. NL
1853 Time t Loc X 1993 NL t + 4.5 Loc Y GA Time t Loc Y
NL GA Time t Blending Im getting ahead of myself. a
Physical ahead relationship b Input 1 Scheduled t c s a
t a s = space, t = time a Input 2 Actual Blending
If Bill Clinton were the Titanic, the iceberg would sink. T Political Opponents iceberg BC opponents BC
Blending In France, Watergate would not have harmed Nixon. Nation generic President, laws Violate-->harm US generic Burglary law US Violated --> harm specific
President, laws France Violate-->no harm generic President, burglary law Violated --> no harm
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