Introduction to Criminology CRJ 270 Instructor: Jorge Pierrott

Introduction to Criminology CRJ 270 Instructor: Jorge Pierrott

Introduction to Criminology CRJ 270 Instructor: Jorge Pierrott Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION SEVENTH EDITION CHAPTER 3

Classical and Neoclassical Thought Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Objectives After reading this chapter, students should be able to answer the following questions: What are the major principles of the Classical School of criminology? What were some forerunners of classical thought in

criminology? Who were some important thinkers of the Classical School of criminology, and what was their legacy? Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Objectives Cont.

What is neoclassical criminology, and how does it differ from the classical perspective? How does it build on it? What is the role of punishment in neoclassical criminology? What are the policy implications of the Classical School and of neoclassical thought? What are the criticisms of classical and neoclassical perspectives on crime? Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Introduction Majority of crimes are likely to be

planned, at least to some degree This chapter looks at perspectives based on the believe that at least some crime is the result of rational choices by offenders Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3-1 Key Principles of Classical and Neoclassical Criminology Source: Schmalleger, Frank J., Criminology. Printed and Electronically reproduced by permission of Pearson

Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Forerunners of Classical Thought All human societies had notions of right and wrong William Graham Sumner - behavior is governed by: Mores proscriptions covering potentially serious violations of a groups values (e.g.,

murder, rape, robbery) continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Forerunners of Classical Thought William Graham Sumner - behavior is governed by: Folkways customs whose violation is less likely to threaten group survival of the group (dress codes, social manners)

Laws codified into formal structures for enforcement purposes continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Forerunners of Classical Thought Mala in se Acts said to be fundamentally or inherently wrong regardless of time or place. (Forcing someone to have sex against their will or the

intentional killing of children.) Mala prohibita Acts said to be wrong only because they are prohibited. (Prostitution, gambling, drug use, and premarital sex) Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Demonic Era Humans always preoccupied with good vs. evil Explanations for evil that appears

cosmically-based (plague) include divine punishment, karma, fate, vengeful activities of offended gods continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Demonic Era Explanations for evil due to individual behavior (personal victimization, crime, deviance) include demonic possession, spiritual influences, temptation by

fallen angels Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Sources of Criminal Law King Hammurabi ruled Babylon from 1792 to 1750 B.C. and created a legal code. Code of Hammurabi Emphasis on retribution Hammurabis law spoke to issues of:

Theft Property ownership Sexual relationships and Interpersonal violence continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Sources of Criminal Law

Early Roman Law Twelve Tables A collection of basic rules regulating family, religion and economic life. Based on common and fair practices Justinian Code included: The Institutes The Digest The Code It distinguished between public and private laws Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Early Sources of Criminal Law Common Law Based on shared traditions supported by court decisions Major source of modern criminal law Magna Carta (King John of England) Barons demanding respect of their traditions. Individual rights Due process Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Enlightenment (Age of Reason) Social movement in the 17th & 18th Centuries Thomas Hobbes Fear of violent death forces humans into social contract. In exchange the state demands surrender of certain natural rights and submission to the absolute authority. continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger

Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Enlightenment (Age of Reason) John Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding Blank slate Expanded social contract concept Once government is formed, its obligated to assume responsibilities toward its citizens. Protection, Welfare, Life, Health, Liberty and Possessions Checks and balances

Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Enlightenment Jean-Jacques Rousseau Humans intrinsically good Natural law - rights that individuals retain in the face of government action and interests Thomas Paine Natural rights

Thomas Jefferson - life, liberty, property Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Classical School Enlightenment led to view of humans as self-determining entities with freedom of choice Led to Classical School of criminological thought Explained crime as resulting from the exercise of free will

Moral wrongdoing fed by personal choice Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Cesare Beccaria Essay on Crimes and Punishments (1764) Philosophy of punishment Purpose of punishment deterrence, prevention Swift, certain Only severe enough to outweigh personal

benefits derived from crime Opposed to capital punishment, torture Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Jeremy Bentham Introduction to the Principles of Moral Legislation (1789) Two sovereign masters: Pain and pleasure Hedonistic calculus/utilitarianism

People act to maximize pleasure, minimize pain Therefore, pain from punishment must exceed pleasure from crime Panopticon model prison Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Neoclassical Criminology Positivism began to dominate in 20th century Use of scientific method to study crime

Based on hard determinism - belief that crime results from forces beyond individuals control continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Neoclassical Criminology Assumptions undermined in 1970s Studies suggesting failure of rehabilitation Fear of crime get tough on crime

policies Reaffirmation of belief in rationality continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Neoclassical Criminology Resurgence of classical ideals in 1970s middle ground between total free will and hard determinism Key influences Robert Martinsons survey of

rehabilitation programs leading to nothing-works doctrine continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Neoclassical Criminology Key influences James Q. Wilson crime is not a result of social conditions and cannot be affected by social programs David Fogels justice model criminals

deserve punishment because of their choices Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Rational Choice Theory (RCT) Criminals make a conscious, rational choice to commit crime Cost-benefit analysis Behavior result of personal choices made after weighing costs and benefits Crime will decrease when opportunities,

limited, benefits reduced, costs increased continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Rational Choice Theory (RCT) Two main varieties Routine activities theory Situational choice theory Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger

Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Routine Activities Theory Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson Lifestyle and changes in society contribute to volume, type of crime Elements needed for crime: Motivated offender Suitable target Absence of capable guardians continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Routine Activities Theory Lifestyles that contribute to criminal opportunities likely to result in crime because increase risk of potential victimization Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Situational Choice Theory Ronald V. Clarke and Derek Cornish Soft determinism Crime is a function of choices and decisions made within a context of situational constraints and opportunities Crime requires motivation and opportunity Reduce crime by changing the environment Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved Situational Crime Control Objectives Increase the effort involved in crime Increase the risks associated with crime Reduce the rewards of crime Reduce the provocations for crime Remove the excuses that facilitate crime

Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Seductions of Crime Jack Katz explains crime as the result of positive attractions of the experience of criminality Crime is often pleasurable for offenders, which is a major motivation behind crime Crime is sensually compelling

continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Seductions of Crime Suggests criminology be redirected to situational factors that directly precipitate crime and reflect crimes sensuality Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger

Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Situational Crime-Control Policy Situational crime prevention shifts the focus away from the offender and onto the context in which crime occurs Begins with opportunity structure of crime reduce opportunities to reduce crime Focus on context of crime as alternative to traditional offender-based crime prevention policies Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger

Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Critique of Rational Choice Theory Overemphasis on individual choice, relative disregard for the role of social factors in crime causation Assumes everyone is equally capable of making rational decisions Displacement may occur as a result of situational crime prevention strategies Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved Punishment and Neoclassical Thought Classical School emphasizes deterrence as purpose of punishment Neoclassical view adds retribution Someone who chooses to violate the law deserve to be punished Criminals must be punished to curtail future crime Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved Just Deserts Just deserts model of sentencing offenders deserve the punishment they receive and punishments should be appropriate to type/severity of crime Justice is what the individual deserves when all circumstances are considered Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Deterrence

Types of deterrence Specific goal of sentencing seeking to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality General seeks to prevent others from committing similar crimes continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Deterrence For punishment to deter, it must be

swift, certain, and sufficiently severe High recidivism rates suggest specific deterrence does not prevent repeat crime Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 3-5 The Crime Funnel Note: Includes drug crimes. Source: Statistics derived from Kathleen Maquire, ed., Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook (accessed May 12, 2013).

Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Capital Punishment Brings together notions of deterrence, retribution and just deserts Considerable disagreement over the efficacy of death as a criminal sanction Much research into efficacy, fairness of capital punishment continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Capital Punishment Capital punishment and race Opponents cite research suggesting it has been imposed disproportionately on racial minorities Advocates more concerned with whether penalty is fairly imposed Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger

Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Policy Implications of Classical and Neoclassical Thought Determinate sentencing Mandates a specific and fixed amount of time to be served for each offense category Truth in sentencing Requires judges to assess and make public the actual time an offender is likely to serve continued on next slide Criminology Today, 7th Edition

Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Policy Implications of Classical and Neoclassical Thought Incapacitation The use of imprisonment to reduce the likelihood that an offender will be able to commit future crimes Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved A Critique of Classical Theories Represents more a philosophy of justice than a theory of crime causation Lacks explanatory power over criminal motivation does not really explain how choices for/against crime are made Little empirical scientific basis for claims of Classical School Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Activity Your instructor will place you in groups and assign you a public venue (a library, a grocery store, a video store, an office building, etc.). Your group is to inspect the location and answer the following questions: What situational crime prevention techniques are in use in this location? What types of crime do they attempt to prevent? (For example, metal detectors help prevent the theft of library books.) What additional crime prevention techniques could be used to reduce crime in this location? Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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