Improved manure management towards sustainable agri-food systems Henning

Improved manure management towards sustainable agri-food systems Henning

Improved manure management towards sustainable agri-food systems Henning Steinfeld Chief, Livestock Information, Sector Analysis and Policy Branch, FAO Overview Magnitude of the Txt 2 columns problem 2 List Measurement of List 3 greenhouse gases from manure management Pathways and potential for methodologies to reduce emissions from manure Co-benefits and List 4 List 5

Drivers Demand for animal source foods continues to rise Txt2Often columns rapid, poorly regulated intensification List 4 of 2 List 5 Listlivestock production List 3 Geographical separation of production units from feed resources results in broken natural cycles Large sizes and geographical concentration of intensive production units results in large quantities of manure far in excess of the absorption capacity of the surrounding land Consequences of poor management Nutrients and energy are lost and wasted from the system; Txt 2 columns 4 List resulting in opportunity costs to not

managing manure 2 List 5 Listefficiently List 3 Greenhouse gases are emitted, contributing to climate change Ammonia gas from manure is a major contributor to acidification; threatening ecosystem health and biodiversity Nutrients such as ammonium hydroxide lost to water bodies contribute to eutrophication and aquatic toxicity; threatening ecosystem health and biodiversity 5 Key threats of excessive nutrient Txt 2 columns List 2 List 3 List 4 List 5 Source: Sutton et al. 2013 The fate of the nitrogen fed to farmed animals 120 million tonnes of N in animal feed

Txt 2 columns List 2 List 3 Fodder crops; 5.66% Crop residues; 6.76% Grass & Leaves; 41.92% Numbers of live, farmed animals in millions List 4 5 List197 1,398 1,127 965 972 20,187 Oil seed cakes;

18.56% N in animal-source foods N in manure By-products; 7.56% Other edible; Grains; 10.64% 2.25% Other non-edible; 6.65% 6.7 1.4 Million tonnes (11.8 in total) 3.7 99.5 Million tonnes Source: GLEAM 2

GHG emissions from Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) Total emissions (direct and Txt 2 columns from 2 Listindirect) livestock account 3 List for 14.5% of anthropogenic emissions List 4 List 5 Nearly a quarter of these come from manure Source: IPCC 2014 Emissions from manure by commodity Gigatonnes CO2 eq. per year

Txt 2 columns List 2 List 3 List 4 from manure List 5 N2O from manure CH4 Total livestock emissions (allocated) 7,663 Gt CO2 eq. per year All other emissions (CO2, CH4 and N2O combined) Emissions from manure 1,728 Gt CO2 eq. per year (23%) N2O CH4 1,352 (18%) 376 (5%) Source: GLEAM 2.0 Global distribution of total GHG emissions (N2O and CH4) from manure

N2 O Txt 2 columns List 2 List 3 CH4 List 4 List 5 Source: GLEAM 2 Chemical characteristics of manure are dependent on the production system Txt 2 columns List 2 List 3 Dairy cattle Beef cattle Chicken Pig 26 23

55 9 7 8 17 6 4.5 6.3 11.3 4.5 2.9956 4.6732 8.3878 3.3551

kg/ton 2.7 4 11.3 2.7 kg/1 m3 1.0784 2.9956 8.3878 1.0784 kg/ton 3.2 5 5.4

4.1 kg/1 m3 2.3965 3.7146 3.9542 4.0741 List 4 List 5 Dry Matter Content (%) Solid Liquid (fresh, diluted) Total Nutrient Content (Approximate) Nitrogen kg/ton kg/1 m3 Phosphate, as P2O5

Potash, as K20 Quantification of greenhouse gases from manure management: IPCC Guidelines Txt 2 columns List 2 List 3 Tier 1 emission factors (EFs) have been updated for high and low List 4 productivity systems. For major animal categories, Tier List15parameters such as enteric fermentation EFs, volatile solids and nitrogen excretion are derived based on consistent data sources. The Tier 1 method to estimate CH4 emissions from manure management has been updated for consistency with N2O emissions. Certain Tier 2 parameters have been refined. The methane conversion rate (Ym) for cattle and buffalo, varies based on animal diet and level of productivity. The methane conversion factor (MCF) for animal waste management systems are presented based on climatic regions, as opposed to annual temperatures and a simple calculation model for deriving the MCF based on monthly temperature regimes has been presented. Improved guidance has been developed for the treatment of nitrogen transfers among livestock emission source categories and transfers to agricultural soils. (Chapter 10)

Nutrient use efficiency and life cycle assessment: guidance, methodology and action Txt 2 columns List 2 List 3 http://www.fao.org/partnerships/leap/en/ List 4 List 5 LEAP event at COP25 Room 5, 12 December 2019, 11:30-13:00 Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance (LEAP) Partnership is a multi-stakeholder initiative that seeks to improve the environmental sustainability of the livestock sector through better methods, metrics and data FAO LEAP guidelines on GHG emissions, nutrient flows and impact assessment (GHG emissions, acidification and eutrophication), and on the environmental footprint of feed additives are relevant for assessment of baselines and mitigation options also for alternative manure management Life cycle assessment and nutrient flows (FAO LEAP guidelines)

Txt 2 columns List 2 List 3 Source: FAO. 2016. Environmental performance of large ruminant supply chains: Guidelines for assessment. Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance Partnership. FAO, Rome, Italy. List 4 List 5 Source: FAO. 2018. Environmental performance of large ruminant supply chains: Guidelines for assessment. Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance Partnership. FAO, Rome, Italy. Mitigation options for GHG emissions from animal manure Improved livestock feeding Forage quality and grassland Txt 2 columns management 2 List Dietary ingredients and feed List 3 additives Precision feeding of livestock Manure management

Coverage of slurry stores Active aeration of stored manure Acidification of slurry Timing and methods of application to crop and pasture Circular bio-economy Extraction of biogas Recycling manure as organic fertilizer List 4 List 5 Co-benefits to reducing GHG emissions Txt2 columns Soil health and List 2 productivity List 3

Environmental benefits: water, biodiversity, odour Greater food security and resilience, energy savings Improved human health List 4 List 5 Risks and barriers to better manure management Health and safety 2Antimicrobial resistance (AMRs) Txt columns Hormones and growth promoters List 2 Chemical compounds, including heavy List 3 and other toxic molecules metals Accessibility and availability Volumes of waste and residues depends on location and time Economic feasibility of solutions

Missing links Logistics and innovation (IT) enabling environment and governance partnerships List 4 List 5 How FAO can help Strengthening the knowledge and evidence base by developing baselines, assessments and projections of emissions Global Livestock Environment Assessment List 4 Model (GLEAM) Developing tools, methodologies and protocols to measure emissions, developing and assessing technical and policy options Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance (LEAP) Partnership Policy briefs and technical documents

Piloting and validating technical and policy options through projects and support to up-scaling and investments Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) Facilitating multi-stakeholder partnerships and better integration of broad sustainability objectives, creation of synergies and mitigation of trade-offs Global Agenda for Sustainable Livestock Model (GASL) Global Soil Carbon Partnership (GSP) Txt 2 columns List 2 List 3 List 5 Conclusions Txt 2 columns Animal manure an obvious opportunity for climate List 4 action

5 Listmethane List 2 Different emission pathways for nitrous oxides and List 3 Technical options are available local, integrated solutions are required (circular bio-economy) Regulations and prices often not supportive of efficient manure management Spatial planning particularly important where livestock are expanding Question of trade-offs and shift of burden Thank you

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