Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: background

Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: background

Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: background What are dreams? Sequence of images, emotions, thoughts, etc. passing through a sleeping persons mind Occurs mostly in REM sleep No non-dreamers, only nonrecallers Morning dreams more vivid: longer REM

Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: background PET scans; many parts of brain involved/active in dreaming Limbic system active Frontal lobe not active not rational/logical little inhibition

no sense of time Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams Why do we dream? Like why do we sleep, we dont know. But many theories

Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we dream? Sigmund Freud: psychoanalytical Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we dream? Sigmund Freud: psychoanalytical

The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) Dreams are the royal road to the unconscious. Unconscious mind trying to communicate with conscious mind Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams

Dreams: Why do we dream? Sigmund Freud, continued Dreams are unresolved wishes, desires, feelings, etc. Usually ones we are unaware of (unconscious) Ones that are unacceptable, shameful

So brain censors itself, uses symbols Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we dream? Sigmund Freud, continued Basically fight between: unconscious trying to

communicate with conscious conscious trying to protect conscious (use of symbols) Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we dream? Sigmund Freud, continued

Manifest content its plot Latent content Meaning of dreams Not all dreams have hidden meaning (latent content) How do you know? Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we dream?

Carl Jung: psychoanalytical Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we dream? Carl Jung: psychoanalytical Collective unconscious All have same common, unconscious thoughts, feelings, images, etc.

Based on humans collective experiences Explains why many religions, cultures have similar stories Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Psychoanalytic Perspective Other Psychoanalytic Perspective Theories Carl Jung

Archetypes Universal form of a person or concept Powerful gods, nurturing mothers, etc. Common in literature Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we dream? Biological Perspective theories

(neurons) Activation-synthesis theory Brain active during sleep Brain trying to make sense of neurons firing Making neural connections In brain Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams

Dreams: Why do we dream? Cognitive Perspective theories To remember/process information Helps set information in brain Sleep before test To determine what to forget/what to remember Replays information VCR tape Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams

Dreams: Why do we dream? Cognitive & Biological Perspective theories Both - dreams meaningless; side effect of normal processes Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we dream?

Humanistic Perspective theories Help us make sense of the day Why we dream of recent events, things on our mind, etc. Tetris? Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we dream? We dont know why we

dream, might never know. Likely a combination of all these theories Well, except for the Freud theories; theyre probably Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we dream? All mammals have REM

Evidence points to birds & reptiles do as well Strengthens theory sleep to dream Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we forget dreams? Freudian theory

(psychoanalytical) Trying to repress the unconscious Too painful, shameful, etc. to know about Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Dreams: Why do we forget dreams?

Salience hypothesis We forget because not important Interference theory Brain busy when first awake Dream crowded out Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Have you ever dreamed of

Falling: 83% Being attacked: 77% School, teacher, studying: 71% Arriving late for an important event: 64% Eating: 62% Being locked up: 56% Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Dreams Have you ever dreamed of

Finding money: 56% Swimming: 52% Snakes: 49% Being inappropriately dressed/nude: 46% Unable to breathe: 44% Failing an Exam 39% Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis

Changes in: Sensations Perceptions Thoughts Feelings Behavior brought about by suggestion Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis

Social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) Hypnoti st Please note evillooking facial hair There Hypnoti st

Please note evillooking facial hair As well as there Hypnoti st And hes got red eyes Which is kinda creepy

Hypnoti st Also take note of the vaguely evil-looking, art deco-like writing, telling you that he is, in fact, a And, if there were any doubt, hes got a pocket-watch

That appears to be going back & forth Back & forth Back & forth Back & forth Back & forth Back & forth Back & forth Are you sleepy Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis

Hypnosis Social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist)... suggests to another (the subject) Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis Social interaction in which one

person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will occur. Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis what is it? Science unable to explain how/why

it works Able to observe what subject does under hypnosis, but not clear how/ why it works Or, why people under hypnosis do what they do Part of bigger question of how the mind works Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis

Hypnosis what is it? Subject is alert/fully conscious But tuning out most of other stimuli Focusing intently on one thing, to near inclusion of anything else Similar to daydreaming/zoning out Getting caught up in a book,

Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis what is it?: Argument if really altered state of consciousness Brain waves same as in waking state So if not altered state of consciousness, what is it?

Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Characteristics of hypnosis: Heightened suggestibility Relaxation Vivid imagery & heightened imagination Separated from external reality Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis

Hypnosis terms Dissociation Split in consciousness Allows some thoughts, behaviors, etc. to occur simultaneously with others Partial or total disconnect from different levels of consciousness Form of selective attention

Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis terms Dissociation - examples Dissociation of conscious & subconscious levels Paying attention at subconscious level Disconnected from conscious level

Awareness is separate from Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis terms Dissociation - examples Dissociation of conscious & unconscious levels Subject may dissociate emotional distress from thoughts and memories that produce distress Subject may dissociate sensation of pain

stimulus from emotional suffering that defines experience of pain How hypnosis is able to alleviate pain (mental & physical) Concentrate on one thing (conscious stage), and move something (pain, bad memory) to Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis terms

Trance Altered state of consciousness Disassociated from the conscious state So not in conscious state; another level of consciousness has taken over Narrowing awareness down to the immediate stimuli Suspension of sense of personal indentify Voluntary action: low/non-existent Open to suggestibility

Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Major theories of hypnosis 1. Hypnosis as divided consciousness 2. Hypnosis as social phenomena Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis: theories

Hypnosis as divided consciousness During hypnosis, level other than conscious level state dominate (subconscious or unconscious) Not in trance or altered state, just in other level of conscious Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis

Hypnosis: theories Hypnosis as divided consciousness During hypnosis, level other than conscious level state dominate (subconscious or unconscious) Not in trance or altered state, just in other level of conscious

Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis: theories Hypnosis as divided consciousness Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis: theories

Hypnosis as divided consciousness Hypnotist working directly with subconscious, unconscious Conscious mind not blocking stimuli/commands So more open to

Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis: theories Hypnosis as divided consciousness How hypnosis is able to alleviate pain Concentrate on one thing (conscious stage), and move something (pain, bad memory)

to unconscious level Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis: theories Hypnosis as divided consciousness Hidden Observer Ernest Hilgard Part of brain still in conscious

state Subject aware & observing what is going on in other states of consciousness Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis: theories Hypnosis as a social phenomenon People do what is expected of them

Theyre not really faking Caught up in experience Behaviors produced through hypnosis can also be produced without them Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis: facts & myths Can anyone be hypnotized?

Subjects ability to be hypnotized - more important than skill of hypnotist Subject needs to be open to it Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: ranks susceptibility of able to be hypnotized Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis

Hypnosis: facts & myths Can hypnosis enhance recall of forgotten events? If remembered incorrectly, will be recalled incorrectly. Highly hypnotizable people are especially venerable to false memory suggestions

Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis: facts & myths Can hypnosis force someone to do something they wouldnt do otherwise? Authoritative person in legitimate context can induce anyone, hypnotized or not, to perform unlikely

acts So yes, people can be Unit VIII: States of Consciousness: Hypnosis Hypnosis: facts & myths Can hypnosis alleviate pain? Related to dissociation Person dissociates the sensation of the pain stimulus from the

feeling of pain Body still responds as if it were experiencing pain The brain just does not perceive

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